Intro to Neurp part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Neurp part 2 Deck (80):
1

how many layers in the meninges?

3: Dura Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater

2

what are the meninges?

a connective tissue layer that surround the brain and spinal cord

3

Dura Mater (3)

~thick, though, dual layered membrane
~one layer against the skull and the other can separate from the first layer to form dural vinous sinuses
~highly innervated so can cause pain if compressed

4

Arachnoid Mater

web-like with space below it sub-arachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

5

Pia Mater

delicate membrane that clings to the nervous tissue

6

The spinal cord ends at ___ but ____ and ___ extends to the end of the spinal cord

L1
dura and arachnoid

7

Lumbar cistern

since the dura and arachnoid extends down to the end of the spinal cord, a bag of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the cauda equine (called lumbar cistern)
~this is where lumbar punctures are taken from

8

Lumbar puncture (what is done)

~the insertion of a needle between adjacent lower lumbar vertebrae into the lumbar cistern

9

Lumbar puncture (what to look for) (4)

~Abnormal proteins in CSF – including antibodies
~Infective agents or excess WBCs
~Ionic concentrations
can be used to instill medications into the CSF

10

Why would you insert meds straight into the CSF?

it avoids the barrier that separates the CNS from the blood (blood brain barrier)

11

Epidural injections

~ injections of anesthetic produces temporary loss of sensation without risk associated with puncturing dura
~used in child birth and surgeries of the lower extremities

12

Ventricular system has _ interconnected cavities

4

13

what are the interconnected cavities

2 lateral cavities, 3rd ventricle, and 4th ventricle

14

Lateral ventricle

~large C shaped with "horns" that project into frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes
~one lateral ventricle in each hemisphere

15

3rd ventricle

~thin disk like cavity in sagittal pane
~separate two thalami

16

4th ventricle

~sits on dorsum of brain stem
~separates brainstem from cerebellum

17

Intervertebral foramen

2 canals that connects the lateral and 3rd ventricles

18

cerebral aqueduct

connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles

19

3rd foramina

how the 4th ventricle is connected to subarachnoid space

20

why are the cerebral ventricles connected?

to allow for flow of cerebrospinal fluid between them

21

3 connections between 4 ventricles and subarachnoid space

~single foramen of Magendie
~Two foramina of Luschka
~they drain into cisterna magna which circulates with rest of CSF in subarachnoid space

22

CSF (formed by and the pathway)

~CSF id formed by choroid plexus, which is a specialized capillary network in each ventricle
~ CSF circulates thru ventricular system, formina of Luschka and Magendie into the subarachnoid space through the arachnoid villi into the venous sinuses & venous drainage of brain

23

Hydrocephalus

~blockage of the flow of CSF leading to buildup of fluid into the ventricular system
~produces an enlargement of ventricular system & compression of cerebrum producing severe mental retardation
~treated with shunt removing fluid from the ventricular systems

24

The brain is __% of the body's mass and but requires __% of the blood flow

2%
>20% (this is so high because of he high metabolic activity even at rest)

25

two arteries that supply blood to brain

Internal carotid (branch of common carotid)
Vertebral artery

26

Vertebral Arteries enter the skull through:

foramen magnum

27

the two vertebral arteries merge to form:

Basilar artery

28

Basilar artery

~has number brainstem and cerebellar branches
~bifurcates at its end to form the posterior cerebral arteries

29

the Internal Carotid enters the skull through:

carotid canal

30

the internal carotid has _ branches

3: anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, posterior communicating

31

Circle of Willis

~Vertebro-basilar & internal carotid circulations may interconnect
~formed by anterior cerebral, anterior communicating, posterior communicating, posterior cerebral (along with the internal carotid and basilar arteries)

32

Venous drainage from the brain

~small veins drain into the large venous sinuses (within the dural sinuses)
~venous sinuses drain into the internal jugular vein
~the internal jugular vein drains back into the general venous circulation

33

Spinal Cord arteries

~supplied by an anterior spinal artery and 2 posterior arteries- branches off of the vertebral arteries
~the anterior spinal artery supplies anterior 1/3 and posterior arteries supply only posterior 1/3
~blood supply supplemented by segmental radicular arteries

34

Blood Brain Barrier

~tight junction between capillary endothelial cells in nervous system capillaries
~unlike other tissues where capillaries are quite leaky
~prevention of many substances from getting into the CNS from the vasculature
~blocks both toxic and beneficial substances from getting into the CNS

35

Areas of the cerebral cortex

~have specific functions
~primary sensory areas, sensory association areas, Frontal Lobe (primary motor cortex, pre-motor cortex, supplementary motor cortex, frontal eye fields, Broca's area, pre-frontal cortex), Parietal Lobe (Primary somatosensory cortex, somatosensory association cortex), Occipital Lobe (primary visual cortex, visual association cortex), Temporal Lobe (primary auditory cortex, auditory association cortex, Wernicke's area)

36

Primary sensory areas

do the initial processing of the sensory signals
(can detect individual somatosensory components such as touch, pressure, and temperature)

37

Sensory association areas

more complex analysis of sensory signals
(allow you to identify an object from the integration of all these components without seeing the object)

38

Stereognosis

being about to identify an object from the integration of all the components without seeing the objects

39

Frontal lobe (parts) (6)

~primary motor cortex (prefrontal gyrus)
~pre-motor cortex
~supplementary motor cortex
~frontal eye fields
~Broca's area
~pre-frontal cortex

40

primary motor cortex

~prefrontal gyrus
~muscle by muscle activation (responsible for single muscle activation)

41

pre-motor cortex

~just rostral to primary motor cortex
~groups of muscles- synergies (functions to activate groups of muscles together to produce movement patterns we call synergies)

42

Supplementary motor complex

~superior just rostral to primary motor cortex
~organizes motions (organize movements prior to activation of other parts of the motor pathway)

43

Frontal eye fields

~just rostral to premotor cortex
~organize eye movements

44

Broca's area

~inferior pre-motor area
~coordinates muscle of speech
~serves the face and throat muscles

45

Pre-frontal cortex

~rest of frontal lobe
~responsible for social behavior & cognitive function

46

Parietal Lobe (2)

~Primary somatosensory cortex
~Somatosensory association cortex

47

Primary somatosensory cortex

~postcentral gyrus
~recognition of skin sensation (recognizes basic skin sensation such as touch, pressure, and pain)

48

Somatosensory association cortex

~multisensory integration of skin sensory sensations

49

Occipital Lobe (2)

~Primary visual cortex
~Visual association cortex

50

Primary visual cortex

~Basic points and lines of light
~receives visual information in the forms of points and lines of light

51

Visual association cortex

~complex visual images are assembled from the points and lines

52

Temporal Lobe (3)

~Primary auditory cortex
~Auditory association cortex
~Wenicke's area

53

Primary auditory cortex

~superior medial of the temporal lobe
~receives basic tones

54

Auditory association cortex

~adjacent to primary auditory cortex (superior medial of the temporal lobe)
~transformation of tomes into recognizable sounds

55

Wernicke's area

~posterior temporal lobe
~ability to interpret language

56

the skull is composed of 2 types of bone

cranium and facial

57

facial bones

include nasal bone, maxilla, and mandible

58

cranium bones

frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

59

Suture

the joints between bones in the skull

60

Coronal suture

between the frontal and parietal bones

61

Squamous suture

between parietal and temporal

62

Cranial vault

the brain sits if the cranial vault (the floor)

63

the cranial vault has _ depressions

3: anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae

64

Anterior cranial fossa

~formed by the ethmoid bone, the frontal bone, and he sphenoid bone
~the frontal lobe sits here

65

Middle cranial fossa

~formed by the temporal bone
~contains temporal and parietal lobes

66

Posterior cranial fossa

~formed by the occipital bone
~contains the occipital lobe, brain stem, and cerebellum
~the spinal cord exits through the foramen magnum though this vault

67

Motor neurons

~neurons involved in movements of the body

68

Motor neurons are divided into:

Upper and lower motor neurons

69

Lower motor neurons

motor neurons that project directly out to skeletal muscles

70

Lower motor neurons (location in the spinal cord)

in the spinal cord, ventral horns with axons forming motor axons forming motor axons of spinal & peripheral nerves

71

Lower motor neurons (located in the brain stem)

in the motor nuclei of the brainstem forming the motor axon of cranial nerves

72

Upper motor neurons

~those motor neurons that project directly or indirectly to lower motor neurons
~ located in motor portion of cerebral cortex (axon of corticospinal tract) directly innervate lower motor neurons

73

Upper motor neurons (located)

~located in brainstem nuclei which form descending motor pathways
~descend to innervate spinal lower motor neurons

74

Upper motor neurons can be ____ and the lower motor neurons can be ___ (directional)

Upper: rostral (superior)
Lower: caudal (inferior)

75

Upper and lower motor neurons (locations)

Upper: cerebral cortex
Lower: brainstem and spinal cord

76

How are motor neurons named?

they are names for where they project and their function, not their position in the neural axis

77

Upper motor neurons of pons and medulla innervate:

lower motor neurons of the midbrain which project out to the skeletal muscles

78

Lower motor neurons are the only connection with:

~skeletal muscles
~ forms the "final common pathway" to muscles
~both volitional and reflexive activity

79

damage to upper motor neuron would affect: (volitional and/or reflexive activity)

only affect volitional activity

80

damage to lower motor neurons would affect: (volitional and/or reflexive activity)

both reflexive and volitional activity