INTRO TO NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in INTRO TO NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY Deck (85):
1

what are the functions of the lymphatic system?

Draining excess interstitial fluid (Extracellular fluid) from the tissue spaces
Transporting dietary lipids and lipid soluble vitamins around the body
Defence against disease or Immunity

2

how is lymph formed?

formed from blood plasma that filters from the blood capillaries into the interstitial space
Excess interstitial fluid passes through the endothelium of the lymphatic vessels and enters the lymphatic capillaries. This fluid resembles blood plasma, but lacks the larger plasma proteins

3

what are the 2 groups lymphatic organs and tissues can be classified into?

the primary lymphatic organs
the secondary lymphatic organs and tissues

4

what are the primary lymphatic organs?

provide an environment in which mature white blood cells called the B and T lymphocytes can develop and mature

5

give examples of primary lymphatic organs

red bone marrow, and the thymus gland.

6

what are the secondary lymphatic organs and tissues?

majority of the immune response occurs

7

give examples of the secondary lymphatic organs and tissues

lymph nodes, the spleen and the lymphatic nodules

8

what is a pathogen?

the infectious agent

9

what is a host?

the organism that is infected

10

what are the 2 types of immune systems?

Innate (Non-specific)
Adaptive (Specific)

11

what is the innate immune system?

Recognises molecules commonly associated with pathogens
Represents the most of immunity

12

when does the innate immune system respond?

Is able to respond immediately to presence of pathogen, the first line of defence

13

does the response of the innate immune system change if the same pathogen is encountered?

Response is effectively identical each time the same pathogen is encountered

14

what is the adaptive immune system?

Is specific for an antigen
Only found in vertebrates

15

how is the adaptive immune system acquired?

by experience

16

what does the adaptive immune system do on the first exposure to the pathogen?

pathogen takes a number of days to respond, subsequent responses are greater in amplitude and more rapid: memory

17

what is the function of barriers?

Many barriers prevent pathogens from crossing epithelia and colonizing tissues or destroy them without distinguishing types

18

what is haemopoiesis?

h

19

what are haemopoetic stem cells?

h

20

what is the non-specific immune response?

mechanisms that protect from foreign substances in a non-specific way

21

what is the function of the non specific immune system?

Prevention of entry into the body
Destruction of foreign materials once they have entered the body by internal non-specific defences

22

give examples of non-specific defences

Antimicrobial proteins
Natural killer cells and phagocytes
Inflammation

23

what are the different antimicrobial proteins?

Interferons (IFNs)
Compliment
Transferrins

24

what are IFNs produced by?

lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts that have been infected by viruses.

25

what is the function of IFNs?

act as chemical messengers instructing neighbouring cells to produce antiviral proteins that interfere with viral replication

26

what are the 3 types of IFNs?

the alpha, beta and gamma interferons

27

what are compliment?

a protein normally found in an inactive state in the blood plasma and on plasma memb, where it forms the complement system

28

what happens when compliment becomes activated?

enhance specific inflammatory reactions

29

what are transferrins?

iron binding proteins that inhibit the growth of certain bacteria by reducing available iron

30

what are natural killer cells?

specialized granular lymphocytes

31

why are NK cells important?

Crucial for defense against tumor and virally infected cells

32

what do NK cells detect?

Don't tend to recognise pathogen directly, detect affects of the pathogen on the host cell
detect the lack of host proteins or the induction of stress proteins

33

what cell membrane proteins do natural killer cells attack?

histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens

34

what happens when the natural killer cells attack?

NK cells destroy their targets by releasing perforins or by binding and inflicting damage directly

35

what are phagocytes?

engulfing cells

36

what do phagocytes recognise?

microbes through specific receptors

37

what are neutrophils found?

Short-lived found normally in blood

38

what are neutrophils?

Highly phagocytic granulocyte
Migrates during inflammation

39

what do neutrophils produce?

vast repertoire of antimicrobial factors

40

where are dendritic cells found?

throughout the body, sentinels of the immune system

41

what are dendritic cells?

Phagocytic
Crucial link between innate and adaptive immune response

42

where are macrophages found?

in most, if not all tissues

43

what are macrophages?

Highly phagocytic and antimicrobial

44

what do macrophages direct?

both innate and adaptive through secretion of cytokines and antigen presentation

45

what are macrophages important for?

for non-inflammatory clearance of apoptotic cells

46

what is inflammation?

Describes defence response to damage or infection associated with symptoms such as redness, pain, heat and swelling

47

what is the function of inflammation?

traps invading micro-organisms and allows the region to be perfused with phagocytes and NK rich tissue fluids

48

what pass does inflammation follow os the damage is different?

the process is non-specific, and will follow the same path regardless what the source of damage is

49

what are the 3 phases of inflammation?

vasodilatation and increased permeability of BV, this is followed by phagocyte migration and then tissue repair

50

what is the inflammation process aided by?

histamine, kinins, prostoglandins, leukotriens and complement

51

what are histamines released by?

by mast cells in CT, and by basophils and platelets in response to injury

52

what do histamines attract?

neutrophils and macrophages to the injury and also induces vasodilatation and an increased permeability of BV

53

what are kinins formed from?

inactive precursor molecules (kininogens)
and induces vasodilation, increased permeability to blood and promotes chemotaxis by phagocytes

54

what are prostaglandins?

are lipids that are released by damaged cells

55

what do prostaglandins intensify?

the effects of histamine and the kinins, and also the migration of phagocytes through capillary walls

56

what is the function of leukotrienes?

act as a guidance cue for phagocytes, increase permeability of BV and also function in the adherence of phagocytes to pathogens

57

what are leukotrienes released by?

by basophils and mast cells

58

what does complement consist of?

of a no. of components that are associated with the release of histamine, attraction of neutrophils, the promotion of phagocytosis, and also the direct destruction of some bacteria

59

what happens following an injury?

arteries dilate and become more permeable resulting in localised edema, erythema, and increased temp

60

how is a scab formed?

Leakage of blood clotting

61

what happens an hour after the injury?

the migration of neutrophils and monocytes are attracted to the wound site

62

what is diapedesis?

neutrophils and monocytes migrate from the bloodstream into the tissue

63

what goes into the wound site?

neutrophils first then the monocytes a few hours later, which then transform into wondering phagocytic macrophages

64

what happens to the phagocytic macrophages in the wound site?

they die and forms the pus

65

how long does pus formation last?

until the infection has been destroyed, and dispersed by drainage, or absorption

66

what happens if pus doesn't drain away?

it results in an abscess or inflamed spot, or if the superficial inflamed tissue sloughs away leaving an open running sore, an ulcer.

67

what is ulceration?

a feature common in the extremities of individuals with a poor blood circulation

68

what are static ulcers?

ulcers indiabetics with atherosclerosis

69

what is a fever?

the increase in body temp associated with the inflammatory response

70

why does fever arise?

because many bacterial toxins can elevate body temp by stimulating the release of cytokines and interleukin –1

71

what does fever result in?

results in the hypothalamic thermoregulatory set point being elevated

72

what does increased temp enhance?

can enhance the activity of inerferons and increase the activity of macrophages

73

what does increased temp inhibit?

the replication of bacterial cells

74

what does increased temp increase?

biochemical reactions and activity of enzymes associated with repair

75

what is the function of macrophages?

Role in homeostasis and tissue remodelling

76

what do macrophages do?

ingest and process foreign material, dead cells and debris

77

what do phagocytes express?

many receptors on the surfaces that detect signals that are not normally present in healthy tissues
surface molecules which are commonly used in research

78

what is the function of scavenger receptors?

for recognition of apoptotic and necrotic cells, opsonised pathogens, cell debris

79

what is the function of toll-like receptors?

for recognition of pathogens

80

what is the function of pattern recognition receptors?

detect “non-self” or damage

81

what are the different macrophage subsets?

M1 macrophages
M2 macrophages
Regulatory macrophages
TAMs

82

what are Classically activated macrophages (M1 macrophages)?

defend against bacteria, protozoa, viruses;
Anti-tumour activity

83

what are Alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages)?

anti-inflammatory action;
Regulate wound healing

84

what are regulatory macrophages?

secrete large amounts of IL-10

85

what are Myeloid derived suppressor cells / tumor associated macrophages (TAMs)?

suppress anti-tumor immunity