Flashcards in Intro to Pharmacology & Toxicology Deck (18):
The study of the effect of drugs on the function of living systems
The effects of the body on the drug = ADME
The effects of the drug on the body
A biologically active molecule taken with the intent to produce a change in the body
Excludes nutrient/essential dietary ingredient
A chemical preparation containing 1 or more drugs administered with the purpose of producing a therapeutic effect
Usually contain other substances to make them more convenient to use
What was Ehrlich interested in?
Interested in staining cellular components with different dyes
= Targeting cells = 'magic bullet'
What did Langley discover?
Looked at the effect on the muscle of nicotine and curari (contracting and relaxation)
Found effect of nicotine on muscle can be blocked by curari --> they target the same receptor/protein in muscle
What is 'the receptor concept'?
Drug has selective toxicity = therapy without toxicity
Receptor represents a major target for drugs
What do agonists and antagonists do?
Agonists = activate receptor
Antagonists = block receptor
How much substance is in a given volume
What is the formula for molarity?
Molarity = moles of solute/litres of solution
How many molecules of a substance does one mole contain?
One mole contains 6x10^23 molecules of a substance
What is homeopathy?
Based on 2 principles:
1) Like cures like
2) The greater the dilution, the more potent the medicine
How do drugs work?
Active ingredient (drug molecule) selectively binds to certain molecular targets (receptor)
This exerts cellular effect and effect on the system
Produces therapeutic effect in a concentration-related or concentration-dependent fashion
The ability to produce a desired or intended response
List 2 ways that drug targets are identified
By exploring disease mechanisms (classical)
By analysing genetic basis or susceptibility to disease (post-genomic)
Define: Disease genes
Genes, mutations of which cause or predispose to the development of disease