Intro to Pharmacology & Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Pharmacology & Toxicology Deck (18):

Define: Pharmacology

The study of the effect of drugs on the function of living systems


Define: Pharamcokinetics

The effects of the body on the drug = ADME


Define: Pharmacodynamics

The effects of the drug on the body


Define: Drug

A biologically active molecule taken with the intent to produce a change in the body
Excludes nutrient/essential dietary ingredient


Define: Medicine

A chemical preparation containing 1 or more drugs administered with the purpose of producing a therapeutic effect
Usually contain other substances to make them more convenient to use


What was Ehrlich interested in?

Interested in staining cellular components with different dyes
= Targeting cells = 'magic bullet'


What did Langley discover?

Looked at the effect on the muscle of nicotine and curari (contracting and relaxation)
Found effect of nicotine on muscle can be blocked by curari --> they target the same receptor/protein in muscle


What is 'the receptor concept'?

Drug has selective toxicity = therapy without toxicity
Receptor represents a major target for drugs


What do agonists and antagonists do?

Agonists = activate receptor
Antagonists = block receptor


Define: Molarity

How much substance is in a given volume


What is the formula for molarity?

Molarity = moles of solute/litres of solution


How many molecules of a substance does one mole contain?

One mole contains 6x10^23 molecules of a substance


What is homeopathy?

Alternative therapies
Based on 2 principles:
1) Like cures like
2) The greater the dilution, the more potent the medicine


How do drugs work?

Active ingredient (drug molecule) selectively binds to certain molecular targets (receptor)
This exerts cellular effect and effect on the system
Produces therapeutic effect in a concentration-related or concentration-dependent fashion


Define: Efficacy

The ability to produce a desired or intended response


List 2 ways that drug targets are identified

By exploring disease mechanisms (classical)
By analysing genetic basis or susceptibility to disease (post-genomic)


Define: Disease genes

Genes, mutations of which cause or predispose to the development of disease


Define: Disease-modifying genes

Genes whose altered expression is thought to be involved in the development of the disease state
Genes that encode functional proteins, whose activity is altered in disease state