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Flashcards in Intro to sleep Deck (27):
1

normal humans _____ in sleep, leading to hypercapnia

hypoventilate (breathing decreases more than metaboic demands

 

2

K complexes and sleep spindles found in

Stage 2 

2

cerebral blood flow changes in sleep

increases in REM

decreases in NREM
(overall decrease in total vascular resistance in sleep)

2

changes in ACTH with sleep

cortisol decreases with sleep onset

lowest in early part of sleep, highest 4:00am to 8:00am

3

REM sleep releases inhibition of ___ neurons

chiolinergic

3

paralysis of REM sleep via

postsynaptic inhibition of motor neurons - hyperpolarization of motorneuron membranes

4

theta waves, 3-7cps indicative of (state)

stage 1 sleep

6

alpha waves 8-12cps indicative of (state)

drowsy state

8

changes in growth hormone during sleep

peak 90mins past onset

sleep deprivation decreases secretion

8

temperature changes with sleep

NREM  - lowered threshold, lower shivering, sweating at ambient temperature

REM - no regulation - no shivering, no sweating, body temp drifts toward ambient temp

10

waves typical of REM sleep

sawtooth 

11

percent time spent in sleep, NREM stages 1-4

1) 2-8%

2) 45-55%

3-4) 13-23%

11

circadian rhythm brain location

suprachiastmatic nucelus (hypothalamus)

12

functions s of ___ sleep include

processing of information

unlearning irrelevant information

memory consolidation

facilitating learning and memory

REM 

14

stage that predominates in first half of night

NREM

15

paradoxical sleep

REM

16

change in VCO2, VO2 in sleep

decrease

18

Process C

circadian component affecting propensity for sleep and waking,

alerting signal that maintains wakefullness

19

increase in PaCO2 in sleep is due to 

alveolar hypoventilation

19

changes in parathyroid hormone with sleep

increased in sleep

peaks 2-4:00am

21

patadoxical respiration

rib cage inward, abdomen outward

22

breathing pattern in sleep stages

1

2

3

4

 

1 and 2 - periodic breathing

3-4 - regular breathign

23

REM sleep occurs when reduced NE and 5HT releases inhibition of ___ and ___ neurons that activate REM system

pontine PPT and LDT cholinergic neurons

24

changes in sleep architecture, neonates and elderly

 

 

neonates - large portion of REM

elderly - very little stage 4, 3, 

fractionated sleep - 10-15 cycles per night (vs 5)

25

reseting of circadian cycles mediated through

photoreceptors in retina sending signals to scn

26

___ neurons in the raphe pallidus and ____ neruons in locus coeruleus are wake promoting

 

serotoninergic neurons in raphe pallidus

noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus

27

functions of ___ sleep include

growth, tissue repair, clearance of wasts

enhancement of immune system

restoration of cerebral energy stores

NREM