Flashcards in Introduction and Basic Bacteriology Lecture 1 Deck (42):
A high fever, e.g. 107.5 F is most likely to be caused by what type of microbe?
A purpuric rash is a sign of _. What causes it? What is the "fancy name"?
Disseminated intravascular coagulation, blood clotting
Blood leaking into skin because of loss of clotting factors, increased vascular permeability
An elevated AST and ALT is a sign of damage to what organ? What about CPK and creatinine?
AST and ALT - liver damage
CPK and creatinine - muscle damage
There are 4 major bugs that cause purpura fulminans. What are they?
Among the following 3 microbes, which is / are gram negative? Which is / are gram positive?
Neisseria meningitidis - negative (n for negative)
Streptococcus pyogenes - gram +
Staphylococcus aureus - gram +
What is the major type of cell where staphylococcus aureus can be found?
On epithelial cells
Based on case 1 as presented, what is the drug used to treat MRSA? What is the drug used to shut off exotoxin production? What is the use of rifampin in the case?
MRSA - Vancomycin
Shut off exotoxin - Clindamycin
Rifampin - Nisseria meningitis
In case 1 as presented, what was the reason for suggesting that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) be used? What is a drawback to its use?
IVIG can be used to neutralized superantigen exotoxins
It is expensive
From case 1, what were the 3 reasons for recommending treatment with drotrecogin-α ? What is another name for drotrecogin-α
- Fibrinolytic properties
Activated protein C
In cases of post-influenza toxic shock syndromes (TSS), what is the major microbe that causes the main secondary infection following influenza? What are the 2 main super antigens responsible to the TSS?
Toxic Shock Syndrome toxin 1
Staph Enterotoxin B
What is a major visible sign / symptom that is caused by toxic shock syndrome as identified in the lecture?
A microbe that is the most significant cause of serious infections and deaths from infections according to the CDC is _
What are the top 2 (in order) causes of blood stream infections?
What is the number 2 cause of pneumonia?
What is the Number 1 cause of infective endocarditis and osteomyelitis?
In 430 - 427 BC, patients were described as having "Violent heats in the head, inflammation of eyes and throat, reddish livid skin, extreme diarrhea, and high fever.” Then it was called _. Now it is recognized as _
Post-influenza staphylococcal TSS
True or false, the case to fatality ratio following influenza pandemics have increased over the years. Why is this the case?
False, the fatalities have actually dropped
Increases in medical knowledge
What is the main cause of mortality following influenza? Why?
Bacterial infections following the flu
Influenza and other viral infections leave patients transiently immuno-compromised
Following the 1918 influenza pandemic, what were the 3 main causes of secondary bacterial infections responsible for fatalities?
What is the moiety expressed on human epithelial cells that allow viral entry? What is the viral protein that binds this moiety?
Hemagglutinin (HA) requires a protease-dependent maturation event to expose the sialic acid binding site. What are the molecules that cleave and activate HA?
What is the moiety expressed by the flu virus that is required for its exit from the host cell? What drug targets this moiety?
Co-infection with influenza virus and S.aureus have a higher case:fatality rate. What are 2 reasons?
- S. aureus proteases activate influenza HA, allowing
- TSST-1+ S. aureus produce exceptionally high levels of proteases, including serine proteases
A fever that is characterized as low temperature and lower PMN elevation / inflitration is likely to be caused by what type of microbe?
We have seen how S. Aureus can promote viral infection. How does a virus promote S. Aureus infection?
Virus damages epithelium, allowing sites for secondary S.
aureus infection and TSST-1 production.
Sputum that is yellow / gold in color is likely to contain what microbe?
What is a primary pathogen? What is an example?
Any pathogen that causes disease when present in host
Group A strep
What is an example of an opportunistic pathogen?
Strength of the microbe in disease causation, and the factors that give them that strength. This describes _. An example would be _
Toxic Shock Syndrome toxin 1
A rod shaped organism would be described as _
In addition to regular rods, a rod with a tapered end would be described as _, while a rod that is thread-like is described as _
A spherical shaped organism is classified as _
A rod that is curved is classified as _. What is the example provided?
A long spiral shaped organism is classified as _. The example provided is _. The disease it causes is _
When looking at stained specimen, a purple organism is likely gram _ while a pink organism is likely gram _. The component of the organism that absorbs the stain is the _ and the agent that provides the pink color is _
The 2 examples of gram + rods provided in this lecture are _
The one example of a gram negative rod provided in this lecture is _
The 3 examples of gram positive cocci provided in this lecture are _
The one example of a gram negative cocci provided in this lecture is _
The example of a gram negative spirilli provided is _
2 examples of microbes that are stained by acid fast methods are _