Introduction of new species Flashcards Preview

A level Geography - Ecosystems: change and challenge COPY > Introduction of new species > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction of new species Deck (10)
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1
Q

EXAMPLE of species from around the world spreading e.g. found in Sheffield.

A

North America - Canadian goldenrod, Michaelmas daisy.
Europe - sycamore.
China and Japan - Japanese knotwood.

2
Q

How have new species been introduced to different areas from around the world?

A

Escapes from gardens.
Plants brought in by collectors/amateur gardeners.
Wind-blown seeds.
Seeds carried by animals/transport.

3
Q

Why are urban areas attractive for immigrant species?

A

Variety of habitats.
Constant creation of new habitats.
Reduced level of competition.

4
Q

How is vegetation managed in areas such gardens?

A

Species are introduced (many from overseas).
Others are removed/controlled by mowing, weeding, or through the use of pesticides and herbicides.
E.g. sport fields - reduce the species diversity by maintaining grass pitches, where grassy meadows once were.

5
Q

What are the motives for managing gardens/allotments ect.? 9

A
  1. Altruistic motives - more colour - aesthetic value.
  2. Improving the visual outlook - hiding eyesores to encourage business/residents to move in.
  3. Study purposes - for schools
  4. Attracting customers - for local business.
  5. Arboretums for the public - provided by the local authorities.
  6. Attract new species e.g. birdwatchers.
  7. Noise and pollution inhibitors.
  8. Provide shade in hot urban environments.
  9. To reduce soil erosion on embankments.
6
Q

How was the urban-rural defined by George Wehrwein in 1942?

A

‘The areas of transition between well recognised urban land uses and the area devoted to agriculture’,

7
Q

Why is the urban-rural fringe considered attractive?

A

For development e.g. business parks, airports and high-cost housing.
Improved transport works, landfill sites and sewage works.

8
Q

What development pressures do urban-rural fringes face?

A

Southeast England - 500,000 new homes are required over the next 25 years.
Much of the UK are designated green belt - regulations that strictly control new development.

9
Q

What has happened to the open countryside regarding urban-rural fringes?

A

Frequently degraded.
Farmers face problems - fly-tipping, ill encampments, trespassing and vandalism.
Secondary succession may begin on untended fields - growth of weeds/thorns/brambles.
Despite lack of investment , land values are high due to the potential of future development.
Belief that unkempt derelict land has an advantage in gaining planning permission.

10
Q

What is the newest government policy regarding the urban-rural fringe?

A

Sustainable development.
Recycling of derelict/degraded land e.g. through the planting of woodland, to improve the local landscape.
Urban areas now have ‘country parks’.
These are relatively unmanaged - harbour more natural plant communities, provide breeding sites for bird species e.g. lapwing and syklark - both nest on the ground.