EXAMPLE of species from around the world spreading e.g. found in Sheffield.
North America - Canadian goldenrod, Michaelmas daisy.
Europe - sycamore.
China and Japan - Japanese knotwood.
How have new species been introduced to different areas from around the world?
Escapes from gardens.
Plants brought in by collectors/amateur gardeners.
Seeds carried by animals/transport.
Why are urban areas attractive for immigrant species?
Variety of habitats.
Constant creation of new habitats.
Reduced level of competition.
How is vegetation managed in areas such gardens?
Species are introduced (many from overseas).
Others are removed/controlled by mowing, weeding, or through the use of pesticides and herbicides.
E.g. sport fields - reduce the species diversity by maintaining grass pitches, where grassy meadows once were.
What are the motives for managing gardens/allotments ect.? 9
- Altruistic motives - more colour - aesthetic value.
- Improving the visual outlook - hiding eyesores to encourage business/residents to move in.
- Study purposes - for schools
- Attracting customers - for local business.
- Arboretums for the public - provided by the local authorities.
- Attract new species e.g. birdwatchers.
- Noise and pollution inhibitors.
- Provide shade in hot urban environments.
- To reduce soil erosion on embankments.
How was the urban-rural defined by George Wehrwein in 1942?
‘The areas of transition between well recognised urban land uses and the area devoted to agriculture’,
Why is the urban-rural fringe considered attractive?
For development e.g. business parks, airports and high-cost housing.
Improved transport works, landfill sites and sewage works.
What development pressures do urban-rural fringes face?
Southeast England - 500,000 new homes are required over the next 25 years.
Much of the UK are designated green belt - regulations that strictly control new development.
What has happened to the open countryside regarding urban-rural fringes?
Farmers face problems - fly-tipping, ill encampments, trespassing and vandalism.
Secondary succession may begin on untended fields - growth of weeds/thorns/brambles.
Despite lack of investment , land values are high due to the potential of future development.
Belief that unkempt derelict land has an advantage in gaining planning permission.
What is the newest government policy regarding the urban-rural fringe?
Recycling of derelict/degraded land e.g. through the planting of woodland, to improve the local landscape.
Urban areas now have ‘country parks’.
These are relatively unmanaged - harbour more natural plant communities, provide breeding sites for bird species e.g. lapwing and syklark - both nest on the ground.