Introduction to Cell and Tissue Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to Cell and Tissue Structure Deck (30):
1

Endocytosis

Plasma membrane folds to form intracellular vesicle that pinches off

2

Phagocytosis

Engulfing large particles

3

Pinocytosis

Engulfing small particles. Mediated via receptor/ligand binding.

4

Exocytosis

Intracellular vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane to release material inside the vesicle to extracellular space

5

Nucleus

Contains nucleoplasm and chromatin

6

Nuclear envelope

Double membrane with channels through both membranes (nuclear pores)

7

Nuclear lamina

Fibrous meshwork formed by proteins called lamins

8

Nuclear pore complex

Formed by specific proteins that regulate movement of material (RNAs, proteins, and ribosome subunits) in and out of nucleus

9

Nucleolus

Site of rRNA transcription and ribosome subunit assembly

10

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Lipid synthesis, glycogenesis (making glycogen), detoxification (oxidation and methylation reactions), Ca2+ metabolism in striated muscle

11

Golgi apparatus

Ogliosaccharide chain processing, glycosylation and deglycosylation of proteins and lipids (adding and removing carbohydrates), assembly of proteoglycans (proteins with carbohydrates attached), phosphorylation and sulfation of proteoglycans and proteins, proteolytic processing of polypeptides (cleaving proteins to change function)

12

Endosomes

Associate with receptors to form coated pits and vesicles. Clathrins and clathrin-associated proteins form coat on the cytoplasmic surface of membrane.

13

Early endosomes

May still carry clathrin and surface receptor molecules. Internal acidification leads to receptor ligand separation.

14

Late endosomes

Shed cell surface related components (clathrin, receptors). Fuse with lysosomes.

15

Carrier vesicles (MVBs)

Transfer materials from early to late endosomes

16

Lysosomes

Have lytic enzymes. Fuse with late endosomes to form a secondary lysosome or phagolysosome to digest internalized material.

17

Peroxisomes

Major enzyme is catalase which metabolizes hydrogen peroxide by oxidation of organic substrates. Also contain enzymes for _-oxidation for long chain fatty acids. Some peroxisomes have crystalloid core (not humans) which helps with identification.

18

Mitochondria

Cristae are the site of proteins and enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation and ATPase synthetase complex. Inner membrane matrix contains enzymes for lipid synthesis and modification. Krebs cycle enzymes, DNA and RNA, ribosomes, and enzymes for protein synthesis. May store Ca2+.

19

Microfilaments

Actin (G-Actin) form two chain helical polymer (F-Actin) which is the core of the microfilaments. Actin-associated proteins which bind to actin and modify activity of microfilaments.

20

Microtubules

Tubulin-_ and _ isoforms alternate to form polymeric protofilament. 13 protofilaments aligned side by side make microtubule.

21

Desmin

Intermediate filaments for muscle cells

22

Vimentin

Intermediate filaments for mesenchymal cells (adult stem cells in bone marrow)

23

Neurofilament protein

Intermediate filaments for neuronal cells

24

Keratins

Intermediate filaments for epithelial cells

25

Glial fibrillar proteins

Intermediate filaments for glial cells (support cells in the CNS)

26

Four main tissue types

1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Nerve

27

Epithelial tissue

Line or cover organs, regulate transport of materials, and form glands. Have an apical (top or facing the ECM) and basal (bottom or facing the lumen) surface.

28

Connective tissue

Combination of cells and extra-cellular matrix (ECM). Form skeletal structures, provide conduit for blood vessels and nerves, provide cushoning.

29

Muscle tissue

3 types: 1. Skeletal-attached to skeleton for voluntary body movement 2. Smooth-Component of many organs responsible for autonomic (involuntary) visceral movement 3. Cardiac-forms walls of heart chambers

30

Nerve tissue

Transmits electrical signals which regulate brain function, muscle and gland activity. Composed of neurons (cells which generate and receive electrical signals) and glia (mixed population of cells that provide metabolic and structural support to neurons.