Flashcards in Introduction to Gross Brain Laboratory and Spinal Cord Exercise Deck (37):
The somatosensory cortex is _________ to the Rolandic fissure. It is also called the ____________.
posterior; postcentral gyrus
The somatotopic area of the wrist is _________ to the area of the hand.
The area where the motor-neuron axons cross is called the ____________.
The cingulate gyrus is immediately superior to the _____________.
Superior to the cingulate gyrus is the ____________.
The motor neuron axons are wrapped in a structure called the ___________.
The corticospinal pathway is also called the ___________.
The caudate and putamen together are called the ___________.
The corticospinal tract splits the ___________ into the medial caudate and lateral putamen.
The internal capsule has a bend in ___________ slices.
The corticospinal tracts are on the _________ surface of the medulla.
ventral (these form the "eyes" in Dr. Ojemann's mnemonic)
Motor neurons from the corticospinal tract synapse on ___________.
alpha motor neurons – which reside in the spinal cord and send axons into the periphery
The intermediolateral cell column (aka lateral grey column) in the spinal cord contains ____________.
Hyperreflexia is caused by __________ damage.
upper motor neuron
What is spasticity?
Inability of muscle cells to relax
What are fasciculations?
Individual motor units contracting, leading to noticeable rippling of muscle fibers
Paresis is ____________.
weakness (as opposed to plegia, which means total loss of control)
The ___________ contains all of the sensory axons from the lower extremity.
The ____________ contains all of the sensory axons from the upper extremity.
The fasciculus cuneatus is _________ to the fasciculus gracilis.
Pain-sensing neurons synapse on a fasciculus in the spinal cord called the __________.
What is the division of the two hemispheres called?
The interhemispheric fissure
The insula is within the __________.
What is between the paracentral lobule and the precuneus?
The cingulate sulcus
What is the corticospinal tract when it passes the medulla?
The medullary pyramid
Where does the corticospinal tract become contralateral?
In the medullary decussation
Describe the differing responses to upper-motor neuron (UMN) and lower-motor neuron (LMN) injury.
UMN: immediate weakness followed by hyperreflexia and spasticity
LMN: immediate and long-lasting weakness
Describe the cell chain involved in sensing pain.
First neuron enters spine – synapses on neuron that crosses midline then extends to the thalamus – synapses on thalamic neuron that carries signal to cortex
In the cerebrum, the fibers of the internal capsule splay out into ______________.
the corona radiata
The putamen is ____________ to the globus pallidus.
In the midbrain, the internal capsule is referred to as ___________.
the crus cerebri
The caudate is ____________ to the thalamus.
Approximately _________ percent of the corticospinal axons decussate.
How many lower-motor neurons can one upper-motor neuron innervate?
A "pool" (Ojemann's word)
Muscle fasciculations are characteristic of _____________ damage.
Where is the nucleus gracilis?
The bottom of the brainstem