Introduction to Gross Brain Laboratory and Spinal Cord Exercise Flashcards Preview

MS2 - Nervous System > Introduction to Gross Brain Laboratory and Spinal Cord Exercise > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Gross Brain Laboratory and Spinal Cord Exercise Deck (37):
1

The somatosensory cortex is _________ to the Rolandic fissure. It is also called the ____________.

posterior; postcentral gyrus

2

The somatotopic area of the wrist is _________ to the area of the hand.

medial

3

The area where the motor-neuron axons cross is called the ____________.

decussation

4

The cingulate gyrus is immediately superior to the _____________.

corpus callosum

5

Superior to the cingulate gyrus is the ____________.

cingulate sulcus

6

The motor neuron axons are wrapped in a structure called the ___________.

internal capsule

7

The corticospinal pathway is also called the ___________.

pyramidal tract

8

The caudate and putamen together are called the ___________.

striatum

9

The corticospinal tract splits the ___________ into the medial caudate and lateral putamen.

ganglionic eminence

10

The internal capsule has a bend in ___________ slices.

axial

11

The corticospinal tracts are on the _________ surface of the medulla.

ventral (these form the "eyes" in Dr. Ojemann's mnemonic)

12

Motor neurons from the corticospinal tract synapse on ___________.

alpha motor neurons – which reside in the spinal cord and send axons into the periphery

13

The intermediolateral cell column (aka lateral grey column) in the spinal cord contains ____________.

sympathetic neurons

14

Hyperreflexia is caused by __________ damage.

upper motor neuron

15

What is spasticity?

Inability of muscle cells to relax

16

What are fasciculations?

Individual motor units contracting, leading to noticeable rippling of muscle fibers

17

Paresis is ____________.

weakness (as opposed to plegia, which means total loss of control)

18

The ___________ contains all of the sensory axons from the lower extremity.

fasciculus gracilis

19

The ____________ contains all of the sensory axons from the upper extremity.

fasciculus cuneatus

20

The fasciculus cuneatus is _________ to the fasciculus gracilis.

lateral

21

Pain-sensing neurons synapse on a fasciculus in the spinal cord called the __________.

Lissauer's fasciculus

22

What is the division of the two hemispheres called?

The interhemispheric fissure

23

The insula is within the __________.

Sylvian fissure

24

What is between the paracentral lobule and the precuneus?

The cingulate sulcus

25

What is the corticospinal tract when it passes the medulla?

The medullary pyramid

26

Where does the corticospinal tract become contralateral?

In the medullary decussation

27

Describe the differing responses to upper-motor neuron (UMN) and lower-motor neuron (LMN) injury.

UMN: immediate weakness followed by hyperreflexia and spasticity
LMN: immediate and long-lasting weakness

28

Describe the cell chain involved in sensing pain.

First neuron enters spine – synapses on neuron that crosses midline then extends to the thalamus – synapses on thalamic neuron that carries signal to cortex

29

In the cerebrum, the fibers of the internal capsule splay out into ______________.

the corona radiata

30

The putamen is ____________ to the globus pallidus.

lateral

31

In the midbrain, the internal capsule is referred to as ___________.

the crus cerebri

32

The caudate is ____________ to the thalamus.

superior

33

Approximately _________ percent of the corticospinal axons decussate.

80%

34

How many lower-motor neurons can one upper-motor neuron innervate?

A "pool" (Ojemann's word)

35

Muscle fasciculations are characteristic of _____________ damage.

lower-motor neuron

36

Where is the nucleus gracilis?

The bottom of the brainstem

37

The nucleus cuneatus contains the second-order sensory neurons for the ____________ and is lateral to the ___________.

upper extremities; nucleus gracilis in the brainstem

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