Introduction to human body Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Introduction to human body > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to human body Deck (50):
1

6 levels of structural organization of human body

1. Molecular ex protein and h2o
2. Cellular- smallest unit that has characteristics of life.
3. Tissue- cells combining for a common function
4. Organ- Tissues combining for a common function
5. System
6. Organism- human being

2

osteocytes

mature bone cell

3

osteoclasts

destroying old bone cells

4

osteoblast

forming new bone cells

5

2 methods of ossification

1. intramembrane- direct, osteoblast make bone
2. endochondral (epiphyseal plate) indirect makes cartilage then turns to bone

6

Classification of bone

1. Long
2. Short
3. Flat
4. Irregular
5 Sesamoid

7

Bones increase in diameter by

bone remolding from osteoclats and osteoblast

8

fibrocartilage

strongest type, intervertebral disc, symphysis pubis holding pubic bone together

9

Describe Tonicity

solute difference inside and outside of a cell

10

what would happen if a RBC was in isotonic

no net movement of water

11

what would happen if RBC was in hypertonic

water would move out of cell and shrivel

12

what would happen if RBC was in hypotonic

water would enter cell and swell and burst

13

homeostasis

in balance
a)sensors=receptors (blood glucose)
b) control centers (brain)
c) effectors (responders)
d) negative and positive feedback loops

14

negative feedback loop

have opposite affect, horemone gland will produce more when there is a lack in body

15

positive feedback loop

more associated with disease, childbirth- due to horemore reaction
clotting is another example

16

cytology

the study of cells

17

anatomy

the study of body parts

18

histology

the study of tissue

19

Physiology

the study of function

20

Gross anatomy

with out microscope

21

endocytosis

a cell engulfing a substance

22

milliosmole

unit to measure solute concentrations

23

osmotic pressure

pressure necessary to oppose osmosis

24

solution

mixture of solute and solvent

25

solvent

substancw doing the disolving

26

solute

dissolves into a solution

27

osmosis

water diffusion across cell membrane

28

diffusion

movement from high to low concentration

29

selectively permeable

some substances can cross the cell membrane some cannot

30

cell plasma membrane

it has a phosphlipid bilayer with protein channels scatterd throughout it

31

Na+/k+ pump

classic example of active transport

32

facilited diffusion

passive transport, diffusion but limited to special sites of the membrante (protein channels)

33

active transport train

movement of a substance from low to high concentration requires ATP

34

filtration

passive process where a substance passes through the filter based on sizw

35

excocytosis

a cell discharges a substance from cell

36

phagocytosis

a type of endocytosis that is cell eating

37

features of the osteon

cylinders that run through the bone to give strength

38

membrane (epithelium and connective tissue combine)

1) considered tissue not an organ
2) mucous membrane- lines cavities to provide moisture
3)serous membrane- permeable membrane around lungs and abdominal cavities to avoid friction
4) cutaneous membrane- skin
5) synovial membrane- joints and cavities lubrication bone friction

39

how many bones are in the human skeleton

206

40

Axail skeleton

cranium, spine 80 bones

41

Appendicular

arms and legs and joints- 126

42

Major body cavities

Dorsal (posterior) brain and spine
Ventral (anterior) thoracic, abdominal, pelvic

43

Dorsal Cavity

Cranial- containing brain
Spinal- containing spinal cord

44

Ventral Cavity

Thoratic- chest, heart, lungs, diaphragm dividing
Abdominal- liver, stomach diaphragm superior boundary
Pelvic- urinary, reproductive surrounded by pelvis

45

4 major types of body tissue

1) Epithelial- avascular, very cellular, skin, digestive lining, respiratory.
2) Muscle- Capable of contraction, skeletal, cardiac, smooth
3) nervous- Brain and nerves
4) Connective- most abondant, framework, fat tendion, bone, cartilage, blood

46

basic characteristics of Cartilage (Chondr)

provides support but is not rigid
chondrocytes are seperated under scope in the matrix
jelly like
collegen fibers add strenght
elastic fibers add duribility

47

Hyaline cartilage

smooth, glossy
most common, joints, nose, throat trechea ribs embry

48

Elastic Cartilage

ear
epiglottis, penna, estachian tube

49

Fibrocartilage

Strongest vertabre and pelvis anchor

50

7 typical parts of long bone

1. Diaphysis- shaft
2, epiphysis- ends of bone covered in cartalige
3. metaphysis- neck
4. articular cartilage (at ends of bone)
5. Periosteum- rich in osteoblast
6. Marrow- medullary cavity
7. endosteum- lining marrow, rich in osteoclast