Introduction to Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics Deck (29):
1

Ibuprofen + Paracetamol

Addition

2

Naloxone to morphine

Antagonism

3

Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid

Potentiation

4

Sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim

Synergism

5

Most convenient, economical and common route of administration

Oral

6

Most rapid onset (route of administration)

Intravenous

7

Best treatment option for the disease based on affordability, safety, suitability, and efficacy

rational Drug Use

8

Responsible for selectivity of drug action

Receptors

9

The law of pharmacodynamics

Drug-receptor occupancy theory

10

Refers to the plateau portion of the curve or the constant peak effect

Steady-state concentration

11

Provides data on pharmaceutical potency and maximal efficacy of a drug in relation to the desired therapeutic effect

Graded-dose response

12

Reflects the actual body exposure to drug after administration of a dose of the drug

Area under the concentration curve

13

Response curve which usually leads to coma

Steep dose-response curve

14

Relates the dosage of a drug to the frequency with which a designated response will occur within a population

Quantal dose-effect curve

15

Relation of the dose of drug required to produce its desired effect to that which produces the undesired effect

Therapeutic index

16

Rapid diminishing of responsiveness of the drug after administration

Tachyphylaxis

17

The concentration or dose of a drug required to produce 50% of that drug's maximal effect

Potency

18

Permission of the drug to the system by means of simple passive diffusion, by any route of administration

Absorption

19

Rate and extent of entry of the drug into the systemic circulation

Bioavailability

20

Properties for a drug to be easily absorbable

Non-polar
Non-ionized
Lipophilic

21

Metabolism/Biotransformation

Aims to convert a relatively less polar drug to a more polar metabolite facilitating easier excretion

22

Site pf detoxification, simplification, activation of all food and drugs

Liver

23

Extensive metabolism in the liver of drugs that are absorbed via the portal circulation

First-pass effect

24

The amount of drug eliminated for each interval is constant, regardless of the amount of drug in the body

Zero order kinetics

25

Drug with the longest half-life

Chloroquine

26

Components of total clearance

Hepatic clearance
Renal clearance
Biliary clearance

27

Factors that influence CL

Dose
Organ blood flow
Intrinsic flow of liver and kidneys

28

Considers genetic variations that can cause differences in drug response which may warrant adjustment of doses or discontinuation of therapy

Pharmacogenomics

29

Variation in drug effect due to differences in chromosomal make up

Genetic polymorphism