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Flashcards in Introduction to pharmacology and antibiotics Deck (20):
1

Pharmacokinetics

How drugs are taken into the body, distributed and eliminated

2

Pharmacodymanics

The mechanisms and action of drugs, and the effect they have the body

3

Processes that affect pharmacokinetics

Absorption into the body and cells

Distribution around the body

Metabolism

Elimination or excretion from the body

4

Which two factors determine the concentration of a drug given in any part of the body?

Absorption - transfer of a drug from its site of administration into the systemic circulation and tissues where it has a theraputic effect

Distribution of drug molecules from the site of administration to site of action or storage.

5

Theraputic index


Comparison of the amount of a theraputic agent that has a theraputic effect compared to teh amount that causes death or toxicity

6


Theraputic drug monitoring


The measurement of drug concentrations in the blood. Used to monitor drugs with a narrow theraputic window.

7

Major antibiotics

Penicillins

Cephalosporins

Aminoglycosides

Macrolides

Quinolones

Antifolates

Metroniadazole

8

Antibiotic used to target anaerobes

Metronidazole

Widely distributed, used to treat abscesses

9

Antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis

Penicillins (benzylpenicillin, flucoxacaillin, amoxicillin mainly gram +ve activity)

Cephalosporins (gram -ve)

Carbapenems (gram +ve)

 

Vancomycin IV (gram +ve)

10

Antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis

Aminoglyclosides (gram -ve) e.g. gentamicin IV

Macrolides (gram +ve) e.g. erythromycin

Tetracyclins 

11

Antibiotics that attack DNA synthesis

Ciprofloxacin (broad, increases risk of C. diff)

 

 

12

Antibiotic used in MRSA

vancomycin

13

Likely 1st line antibiotic in skin infections

Caused by S. aureus - Flucloxacillin

14

Likely 1st line antibiotic in LRTI

Amoxycillin

Cause likely to be S. pneumoniae

 

15

Treatment for uncomplicated UTI

Trimethoprim

organism - E coli

16

likely 1st line antibiotic for bacterial meningitis

Ceftriaxone IV

Vancomycin in penicillin allergy

Caused by S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae

17

Bioavailability

Proportion of the drug that remains unaltered from the point of delvery to the venous blood

18

Types of toxicity

A - concentration related

B - not linked to concentration e.g. allergy, enzyme deficiency

C - cumulative

D - delayed

19

Antibiotic used in hospital acquired pneumonia

Co-amoxiclav 

 

20

Antibiotic used in community acquired pneumonia

Amoxicillin

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