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Flashcards in Introduction to Pharmacology principles Deck (54):
1

Pharmacology is the study of?

Interactions of drugs (chemical substances) with biological systems

2

Pharmacotherapy involves selection of?

selection of the right drug in the right dose to interact with the right drug target to produce the desired therapeutic effects

3

What are desired therapuetic effects?

prevention
diagnosis
treatment
cure of
a particular disease

4

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles allow the determination of what?

the relationship between the dose of drug given to patient, the plasma concentration that results from that dose, and the clinical effects that will result from that plasma concentration

5

Drug effects, whether therapeutic or toxic, are directly correlated to what?

the plasma concentration (Cp)

6

important concepts relevant to single or first dose administration include?

onset of effect
duration of action
therapeutic window

7

onset of effect

time to reach the mean effective concentration

8

duration of action

time above the mean effective concentration

9

therapeutic window

difference in plasma concentration between desired and adverse response (MEC)

10

Goal of pharmacotherapy when multiple doses are administered

to reach and maintain plasma concentrations at steady state within the therapeutic window to produce the desired response with a minimum of toxicity.

11

Important concepts relevant to multiple or maintenance dose aministration include: (4)

steady state
time to steady state
steady state concenctrations
flucuations in steady state

12

steady state

condition exists when the rate of drug aministration (RATE IN) equals the rate of drug eliminiation (Rate out)

13

Time to steady state

attained in 4-5 half lives when maintenance doses are administered at constant interval

14

Steady state concentration

average plasma concentration (Cp) after steady state is achieved

15

Flucations in steady state Cp

related the number of half-lives in the dosing interval (Time between doses)

16

what is the key element in pharmacotherapuetics?

dosage regimen

17

what is dosage regimen designed to ensure?

that the desired steady state drug level (Cp(avg)) is maintained within the therapeutic window by balancing the rate of drug elimination with the prescribed rate of drug administration

18

What is the basis of select drug and dose?

pharmacodynamics
- disease targets
- drug regulation

19

what is the basis of select route of administration?

pharmacokinetics
- absorption
- distribution

20

what is the basis of select dosage frequency?

pharmacokinetics
- metabolism
- excretion

21

what is the basis of select duration?

disease pathophysiology

22

4 things to know about every drug?

pharmacodynamics (mechanism of action)
pharmacokinetics
therapeutic uses
adverse drug reactions / side effects / drug-drug interactions

23

pharmacodynamics =

mechanism of action (what the drug does to the body)

24

what is the most important basic science characteristic of a drug

mechanism of action (pharmacodynamics)

25

Mechanism of action enables the identification of? (2)

the drug target in the body (site of action)
the therapeutic category of the specific drug

26

What is commonly the drug target? (1/3)

a membrane or intracellular receptor
an enzyme in a critical biosynthetic pathway
a membrane transport protein

27

do drugs have unique actions in the body?

no! the simply enhance or block the normal physiology of the various organ systems

28

what will determine whether the drug enhances the normal physiological action or blocks it?

the nature of the disease being treated... pathophysiology

29

the student learns physiology to ID what?

the potential targets for drug action

30

the student learns pathophysiology to determine what?

how the target should be manipulated (enhanced or blocked) in a particular disease

31

the student learns pharmacology to select what?

the appropriate drug to bring about the desired manipulation for treatment of that disease

32

pharmacokinetics

what the body does to the drug

33

____________ provides information regarding drug absorption, distributions, elimination that is necessary for designing dosage regimens

pharmacokinetics

34

absorption and distribution --> affects

routes of administration

35

bioavailability

how much of the dose of the drug reaches its TARGET in the body

36

Time to peak effect (Tmax or Cmax)

how fast does the drug reach its TARGET in the body

37

Volume of distribution (Vd)

What dose (mg) to obtain desired plasma concentration (Cp - mg/L)

38

____________- is defined as passage of drug from the site of drug aministration (Aka the route of aministration) into the blood

absorption

39

___________ is defined as the movement of the drug from the bloodstream to the tissues, where it can access targets for both the therapeutic effects and the side effects

distribution

40

distribution includes considerations of

drug protein binding
passage across bbb (or placenta)
selective accumulation affecteing drug efficacy or toxicity (lungs, bone, ear, kidney/urine, saliva, breast milk)

41

route of aministration refers to...

the site of application of the drug into or on the patient

42

systemic effect

absorbed into bloodstream and distribute to sites of action in the body

43

topical effects

mostly remain at the site of application for local action

44

elimination --> affects what?

frequency of aministration

45

duration of action [half life]

how long will the drug stay at its TARGET in the body?

46

elimination refers to?

the elimination of drug activity following drug aminiatration by the combined processes of metabolism and excreation (clearence)

47

Once a drug is absorbed into the bloodstream, it is not only distributed to its site of action, it is distributed to its major organs of elimination (2)

Liver for metabolism
Kidney for excretion

48

The rate of elimination (drug half life) determines what?

the length of time the drug will remain in the bloodstream to exert its clinical effects

49

Therapuetic uses of a drug derive from what?

mechanism of action (drug target)

50

drugs act via enhancement or blockade of...

normal physiological pathways to alter abnormal pathophysiological disease state

51

adverse reaction - predictable from

mechanism of action (drug target)

52

adverse reaction
drug target at non target system -->

side effects seen at therapeutic doses - dose dependent and predictable

53

adverse reaction
drug target at target system -->

extension effects seen at higher than therpaeutic doses - dose dependent and predictable

54

Adverse reactions NOT at drug target -->

idiosyncratic reaction (peculiar to individual) - less predictable, less common
- immunological (allergic)
- metabolic (hepatotoxicity)