Introduction to Physiology & Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

Physiology (Exam 1) > Introduction to Physiology & Homeostasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Physiology & Homeostasis Deck (45):
1

Physiology

Study of functions of living things

2

What does physiology emphasize?

Physiology emphasizes mechanisms

  • Why is a particular function being performed?
    • Explanations are in terms of meeting a bodily need
    • Why do I shiver when I am cold?
  • How is a particular function performed?
    • What are the steps that actually cause the function?

3

What topic is closely related to physiology?

Closely related to Anatomy = study of the structure of the body; structure give rise to function. 

4

Homeostasis

Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment

Ex:

  • Temperature
  • Blood pH
  • Blood Sugar
  • Water Balance
  • Blood Pressure

 

5

What may result if homeostasis is not maintained?

Sickness and death are the consequences of failing to maintain homeostasis.

6

How do physiological systems act to maintain homeostasis?

One means is via Reflex Pathways:

  • Sensor
  • Integrating Center
  • Effector

 

7

Sensor

Organs that are stimulated by changes in the body.

8

Integrating Center

The location in the body that receives information from the sensors and can detect changes from a set point.

9

Set Point

The set point is analogous to the temperature set on a house thermostat. 

10

Effectors

Generally glands or muscles whose activity is increased or decreased by integrating centers in order to counter the deviations from the set point and defend homeostasis.

11

Into what two feedback loop types can reflex pathways be arranged?

  • Negative Feedback Loop
  • Positive Feedback Loop

 

12

Negative Feedback Loop

Change in a condition away from setpoint leads to a response which counteracts that change.

Ex: thermoregulation

A image thumb
13

Positive Feedback Loop

Change in a condition away from setpoint leads to a response which amplifies that change. Generally, meant to increase a certain biological acitvity.

Ex: Labor Contractions, Immune System Response.

14

What types of effectors are responsible for homeostatic maintnance?

Homoestasis is often maintained by opposing effectors (antagonistic effectors) that move conditions in opposite directions.

Ex: when you are hot, you sweat; when you are cold, you shiver. These are antagonistic reactions.

A image thumb
15

What are the two types of homeostatic responses?

  • Intrinsic (i.e. Local Response)
  • Extrinsic (i.e. Global Response)

 

16

Homeostasis Maintained Intrinsically 

(i.e. local response) cells within the organ sense a charge and signal to neighboring cells to respond appropriately. 

17

Homoestasis Maintained Extrinsically

(i.e. global response) outside of organ

  • Endocrine
  • Nervous System

18

What are the effectors in the feedback control of blood glucose?

A image thumb
19

List the levels of organization from lowest to highest

Cell ==> Tissue ==> Organ ==> Organ System ==> Organism

20

Cell

Basic unit of structure and function of living things

21

Tissue

Group of similar cells that perform a similar function

22

Organism

Systems working together in coordination

23

What are the four categories of tissue from which our organ composed?

  • Muscle Tissue
  • Nervous Tissue
  • Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium)
  • Connective Tissue

 

24

What is the purpose of muscle tissue and what are the three types?

Muscle tissue is primarily designed for contraction

  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Smooth Muscle
  • Cardiac Muscle

 

25

Skeletal Muscle

  • Striated Appearance
  • Multiple Nuclei
  • Under Voluntary Control

 

26

Smooth Muscle

  • No striations
  • Involuntary Control

 

27

Cardiac Muscle

  • Found in Heart
  • Striated
  • Involuntary Control

 

28

What is the main function of nervous tissue?

It functions as a communication network:

  • Cells designed to receive and transmit information
  • Regulates and integrates various physiological systems.

 

29

What are the cell types found in nervous tissue?

  • Neurons: high-speed communication via electrical signals
  • Neuroglia: support of neurons

 

A image thumb
30

What is the main function of epithelial tissue?

Cover body surfaces, lines organs and tracts

Function:

  • Regulate the movement of materials
    • Absorb
    • Excrete
  • Barrier
  • Protection
  • Form Exocrine Glands

 

31

Apical Membrane

The layer of plasma membrane on the apical side (the side toward the lumen) of the epithelial cells in a body tube or cavity.

32

Basement Membrane

The layer of proteins and polysaccharides that attach the epithelial membranes to the underlying connective tissue. 

33

What are the functions, unique structures, and types of connective tissue?

Functions:

  • Connection
  • Structure
  • Support
  • Transportation

Unique Structure

  • Large Amounts of Extracellular Matrix

Types

  • Connective Tissue Proper
  • Specialized

34

List some of the types of specialized connective tissue

  • Adipose Tissue
  • Cartilage
  • Blood-Liquid Matrix
  • Bone

35

Adipose Tissue

  • Large cells (adipocytes)
  • Most of interior occupied by a droplet of triglycerides. 

A image thumb
37

Cartilage

Cells found in small cavities (lacunae) in the matrix

 

38

Organs

Two or more types of primary tissues that function together to perform a particular function or functions.

Ex: Stomach

  • Epithelial Tissue
  • Smooth Muscle
  • Nervous Tissue
  • Connective Tissue

 

39

Organ Systems

Groups of organs taht perform related functions and interact to accomplish a common activity essential to survival of the whole body.

  • Do not act in isolation from one another
  • Human body has 11 systems.

 

40

List the 11 organ systems in the human body

  • Circulatory System
  • Digestive System
  • Respiratory System
  • Urinary System
  • Skeletal System
  • Muscular System
  • Integumentary System
  • Immune System
  • Nervous System
  • Endocrine System
  • Reproductive System

41

Stem Cells

Tissues are highly specialized; have undergone differentiation from stem cells.

42

What are the types of stem cells?

  • Totipotent
  • Pluripotent
    • Embryonic Stem Cells
  • Multipotent
    • Adult Stem Cells

43

Multipotent

Adult stem cells (for example) which are undifferentiated cells found in some organs; function to maintain and repair tissue.

Ex: hematopoietic stem cells

44

Totipotent

The zygote is totipotent, because ti can produce all of the different specialized cells of the body.

45

Describe the fluid compartments int he body

Humans are approx. 60% H2O

Intracellular (ICF): area inside the cells

Extracellular (ECF): area outside the cells

  • Plasma
  • Interstitial: the fluid that bathes cells within the organs of the body.

Fluids are separated by membranes, and can exchange gluid. 

A image thumb
46

Pluripotent

They can produce all of the body cells except those that contribute to the placenta; this is why they are known as embryonic stem cells.