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Flashcards in Introduction to psychological development Deck (20):
1

What is development?

What does it encompass?

The processes that drive the origins and course of individual behaviour and adaptation throughout the life course 

Encompasses:

change at cellular and neurobiological level

physical skills

cognitive and language functions

social and emotional processes

personality and attitudes

behavioural repetoire 

 

2

Why is understanding development important in practicing medicine?

Provides a context for understanding patients

Need to understand normal in order to understand abnormal

3

Describe how development has altered in an historical context?

Views about what is appropriate/normative have changed 

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4

Describe how culture influences development?

All development takes place in a cultural context

What is normative for one culture may be different for another

Culture influences strucutures that socialise (eg. family, school, religious groups)

5

Describe general idea behind the stages theory of development?

Life composed of stages that we progress through

Old age is time of decline

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6

Describe Erikson's theory?

Stages of development that we prgress through

Critical time periods 

Psychosocial crises are driving forces

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7

Describe the strengths of Erikson's theory?

STRENGTHS:

Groundbreaking and creative 

Makes intuitive sense

High level of abstraction > broad ways for further stud and application

WEAKNESSES:

Hard to test empirically

Abstract, broad terms

Refects 1950s norms

lack of clarity regarding time limits for stages

Insufficient attention to maladaptive development

Implied linear progression through stages

 

8

Describe the idea of tasks and development?

Humans move through stages, and each stage is associated with tasks

Developmental task: one which arises at or about a certain period in life, successful achievement of which leads to happiness and to success with later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness and difficulty with later tasks

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9

Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the tasks approach to development?

STRENGTHS:

Integrates challenges from different domains

Stresses the individual's active role in negotiating tasks

WEAKNESSES:

Timeframes no longer appropriate

Sociocultursl changes have transformed expectations of what is normative

Recent research stresses importance of other constructs, such as self-esteem, in future happiness

10

What are trajectories and turning points?

Trajectory: continuation of a direction that propels us towards a destination 

Turning point: disruption to a trajectory that has the long-term impact of altering the probability of life destinations

11

Describe the influences on life trajectories?

Importance of early experience

 

 

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12

Give an example of how a turning point may alter a trajectory?

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13

Describe the transcational model?

Development takes place through transacting factors that operate together dynamically and bi-directionally: 

Genetic

Constitutional

Biological/biochemical

Psychological

Environmental

 

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14

What are risk factors?

Those factors that may contribute to development in an adverse way

15

Describe multifinality and equifinality?

Multifinality: one risk factor can be associated with a number of different outcomes

Equifinality: multiple possible pathways to the same outcome 

16

What are protective factors?

Factors that protect and individual from adverse outcomes 

'Moderators' of trajectories 

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17

What are the four dimensions of temperament?

Harm avoidance

Reward dependance

Novelty seeking

Persistence 

18

What is resilience?

Dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity 

Not evasion of risk, but successful engagement with it 

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19

How does resilience occur in later life?

Through processes of assimilation (adjusting the environment to fit with changes) and accommodation (adjusting self and attitudes) 

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