Introduction to the musclo-skeletal system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to the musclo-skeletal system Deck (87):
1

What are the functions of the skeleton?

shape, support, protection, muscle attachment, provide levers, calcium regulation, blood cell production in bone marrow

2

What are the three types of levers?

1st class, 2nd class, 3rd class

3

What is a 1st class lever?

pivot in the middle

4

What is a 2nd class lever?

pivot at the resistance end

5

What is a 3rd class lever?

pivot at the effort end

6

What are the types of bone?

cortical/compact bone, cancellous/spongey/trabecular bone

7

Structure of cortical/compact bone

dense, mineral, external surface of the bone, 80% bone mass

8

Structure of cancellous/spongey/trabecular bone

spaceous, strong, makes up most of the bone volume, has a matrix, allows us to move effectively and efficiently, contains bone mass, 20% bone mass

9

General bone structure

diaphaqysis and 2 epiphyses

10

What are the two categories of the skeleton

axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton

11

What does the axial skeleton consist of?

skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs

12

What does the appendicular skeleton consist of?

shoulder girdle, arm, hand, leg, foot

13

What types of bones are involved in the appendicular skeleton?

short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, long bones

14

What are the properties of the muscloskeletal system?

stiffness, strain, anisotropic

15

What are the two types of stiffness?

compressive (ability to resist compression), tensile (being pulled apart - bone stretches)

16

What is anisotropic?

a matrix made up of cologne to give it flexibility

17

What is bone made up of?

organic (35%) and inorganic (65%) components

18

What are the organic components of the bone?

cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, lining cells), matrix (1 type of collagen)

19

What are the inorganic components of the bone?

mineral content (hydroxyapite), hydroxyapatite (complex salt of calcium and phosphate)

20

What are the two types of bone growth and development?

longitudinal, circumferential

21

What is longitundinal growth in a bone?

grows at the epiphyses or epiphyseal plates

22

What is circumferential growth in a bone ?

diameter increases throughout lifespan

23

What is the bones response to stress?`

wolf's law

24

What is wolf's law?

bone strength increases and decreases as the functional forces on the bone increase and decrease

25

How are bones modelled and re-modelled?

osteoblasts (lay down new bone), osteoclasts (breakdown bits of bone to get calcium), osteocytes

26

What is bone hypertrophy?

when there is an increase in bone mass due to osteoblast in response to physical activity

27

What is bone atrophy?

a decrease in bone mass due to ostoclasts, decrease in calcium, mass and strength

28

What are the functions of joints?

facilitate movement, transmit force from one bone to another

29

What are the synovial or diarthodial joints categorized by?

the number of axis
no axial = no axes
uni axial = 1 axis, 1 degree of freedom
bi axial = two axes, 2 degrees of freedom
tri axial = three axes, 3 degrees of freedom

30

What is an example of a synovial joint and what is it made up of?

e.g. the knee
- articular cartilage, articular capsule, synovial fluid

31

What does the articular cartilage do?

it provides a protective layer to the surface of the bone, allows movement without wear, reduces the amount of stress between joints

32

How thick is the articular cartilage?

1-5mm

33

What is joint stability?

the ability of a joint to resist abnormal displacement

34

What is joint stability provided by?

the shape of articulating bone surfaces, arrangement of ligament and muscles, other connective tissues

35

What are the functions of muscles?

production of movement, maintain posture, stability of the joint

36

What are the behavioral properties of muscle tissue?

extensibility, elasticity, ability to develop force

37

What are the behavioral properties common to all the muscles?

cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscle

38

What does the muscle tendon unit consist of?

muscle and tendon

39

What is the purpose of a tendon?

attaches muscle to bone

40

Is the muscle passive or active?

its both

41

Is the tendon passive or active?

passive

42

What is tendinous tissue and what is it otherwise known as?

- runs through the muscle
- otherwise called aponeurosis

43

What are the types of muscle action?

concentric, isometric, eccentric

44

What is concentric muscle action?

generation of force with shortening of the muscle length

45

What is isometric muscle action?

generation of force with no change in length of the muscle

46

What is eccentric muscle action?

generation of force with lengthening of the muscle

47

How are rules assumed by muscles?

through agonist and antagonist pairs, they work together to produce flexion and extension

48

How are agonist and antagonist pairs positioned?

opposite side of the joints

49

What is the stabilizer?

it stabilizers the joint

50

What is the neutralizer?

it neutralizes unwanted movement
e.g. pronation

51

What is a lever?

a relatively rigid object that may be made to rotate about an axis by the application of force

52

What is stiffness?

the ratio of stress to strain in a loaded material

53

What is compressive strength?

ability to resist pressing or squeezing force

54

What is tensile strength?

ability to resist pulling or stretching force

55

What is trabecular bone?

less compact mineralized connective tissue with high porosity that is found in the ends of long bones and in the vertebrae

56

What is strain?

the amount of deformation divided by the original length of the structure or by the original angular orientation of the structure

57

What is anisotropic?

exhibiting different mechanical properties in response to loads from different locations

58

What is cortical bone?

compact mineralized connective tissue with low porosity that is found in the shafts of long bones

59

What is trabecular bone?

less compact mineralized connective tissue, largely collagen, with high porosity that is found in the ends of long bones in the vertebrae

60

What is axial skeleton?

the skull, vertebrae, sternum and ribs

61

What is appendicular skeleton?

bones composing the body appendages

62

What is short bones?

small, cubical skeletal structures, including the carpals and tarsals

63

What is flat bones?

skeletal structures that are largely flat in shape

64

What is irregular bones?

skeletal structures of irregular shape .e.g. the sacrum

65

What is long bones?

skeletal structures consisting on a long shaft with bulbous ends .e.g. the femur

66

What is articular surface?

the point at which the ends of bones meet - a joint

67

What is condyle?

a rounded, convex protuberance at the end of a bone .e.g. femur

68

What is trochlea?

a pulley-like structure

69

What is trochanter?

a boney protrusion for muscle attachment

70

What is process?

a projection from a bone

71

What is spine?

a prominent plate

72

What is fossa?

a hollow or depression in a bone

73

What is tuberosity?

a rounded prominence, usually providing attachment for tendons or ligaments

74

What is a synarthroses?

a fibrous joint that can absorb shock while permitting little or no movement of the articulating bones

75

What are sutures?

irregularly grooved bone sheets are closely connected by fibers that are continuous with the periosteum

76

What are syndesmoses?

joints where dense fibrous tissues binds the bones together, permitting extremely limited movement

77

What are amphiarthroses?

cartilaginous joints that attenuate forces and permit more motion of adjacent bones

78

What are synchondroses?

joints where articulating bones are held together by thin layer of hyaline cartilage

79

What are symphyses?

joint where thin layer of hyaline cartilage separates a disc of fibrocartilage from the bones

80

What are diathroses?

joints in which the articulating bone surfaces are covered with articular capsule, which secretes synovial fluid

81

What are the six types of freely movable joints?

gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball and socket

82

What is a gliding joint?

joints where articulating bone surfaces are nearly flat and movement is permitted is non-axial gliding

83

What is a hinge joint?

one articulating bone surface is convex and the other is concave

84

What is a pivot joint?

joints where rotation is permitted around on axis

85

What is a condyloid joint?

joints where one articulating bone surface is an ovular convex shape and the other is reciprocally shaped concave surface

86

What is a saddle joint?

joint where articulating bone surfaces are both shaped like the seat of a riding saddle

87

What is a ball and saddle joint?

joints where the articulating surfaces are reciprocally convex and concave, have all three planes of motion