Introduction to the nervous system lecture 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to the nervous system lecture 2 Deck (33):
1

What classification is a serotonin?

-Indoleamine

2

What is the precursor to make acetylcholine that enters the nerve?

-Choline

3

What combines with choline to make acetylcholine?

-Acetyl CoA

4

What enzyme combines choline with acetyl CoA?

-Choline acetyl transferase

5

What puts acetylcholine into a vesicle?

-Vesicular Ach transporter

6

What enzyme metabolizes Ach once it is released back to choline?

-Acetylcholinesterase (this is done very quickly)

7

Is there an Ach plasma membrane transporter?

-No

8

Does Ach have an autoreceptor?

-Yes

9

What can Ach do once it is released?

-Go to an autoreceptor
-Get metabolized back into Choline
-Goes to post synaptic receptors

10

What are the two types of post synaptic receptors?

-Nicotinic
-Muscarinic

11

What type of receptor is the autoreceptor?

-Muscarinic

12

Between GABA and glutamate which one is inhibitory?

-GABA

13

Between GABA and glutamate which one is excitatory?

-Glutamate

14

What is the precursor to make glutamate?

-Alpha ketoglutarate

15

What enzyme changes alpha ketoglutarate to glutamate?

-aminotransferase

16

When glutamate gets released where can it go?

-Taken up by astrocytes
-Post synaptic receptors
-Autoreceptors
-Taken back up into the nerve terminal

17

What enzyme converts glutamate to glutamine?

-Glutamine synthetase

18

What enzyme converts glutamine back to glutamate in the nerve terminal?

-Glutaminase

19

Where can glutamate get converted into glutamine?

-Astrocytes

20

What are the post synaptic receptors for glutamine?

-AMPA/kainate
-NMDA
-HCN

21

What is the type of autoreceptor for glutamate?

-Metabotropic glutamate

22

What can take glutamate back into the nerve terminal?

-Glutamate transporter

23

What converts glutamate to GABA?

-GAD (Glutamate decarboxylase)

24

What can GABA do when it is released?

-Go to post synaptic receptors
-Get taken up by astrocytes
-Go to the autoreceptor
-Taken back up into the nerve terminal

25

When GABA is in the astrocyte what converts it to succinate?

-GABA transaminase

26

What is GABA converted into in the astrocyte?

-Succinate

27

What are the two types of post synaptic receptors for GABA?

-GABA A
-GABA B

28

What is an H3 receptor thought to function as?

-Inhibitory heteroreceptor

29

What can the activation of the brain H3 receptors do?

-Decrease the release of acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and certain peptides

30

What do endorphins bind to?

-Mu receptors

31

What happens when endorphins bind to mu receptors?

-Causes a decrease in GABA release
-Increases dopamine release

32

Neurotensin is a neuropeptide that regulates what?

-Dopamine systems (inhibitory feedback)

33

What does nitric oxide to do smooth muscle?

-Relaxes

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