Introduction to the Reproductive System: Physiology and Biochemistry Flashcards Preview

Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Introduction to the Reproductive System: Physiology and Biochemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to the Reproductive System: Physiology and Biochemistry Deck (22):
1

The conversion of _______________ is the rate-limiting step in sex-hormone synthesis.

cholesterol to pregnenolone (by 20,22-desmolase)

2

Progestins are _______ carbons and androgens are _______ carbons.

21; 19

3

How many carbons are in estrogen?

18

4

What effects do androgens have?

Bone and muscle: growth
Skin: sebum production
Testes: spermatogenesis
Brain: libido

5

The main tissues with progesterone receptors are ___________.

uterus, ovaries, breast

6

What part of the hypothalamus releases GnRH?

Arcuate nucleus and pre-optic area

7

LH acts on ________.

Leydig cells, which release androgens

8

FSH acts on ___________.

Sertoli cells, which releases aromatase, inhibin, and growth factors on the Leydig cells

9

Testosterone has a negative feedback on the ______________.

hypothalamus and pituitary

10

The positive feedback of ___________ causes the surge of LH.

progesterone

11

The secretion of HCG during pregnancy causes lower levels of TSH. Why?

Because it has a homologous skeleton (the AA subunits)

12

Most male testosterone is produced in the ________.

testes (by Leydig cells)

13

Most dihydrotestosterone is produced in the _____________.

body's periphery

14

Androgens are converted to estrogens by ____________.

aromatase

15

In males, Sertoli cells produce __________.

estrogen

16

In females, which cells produce estrogen?

Granulosa cells of the ovary

17

Inhibin exerts negative feedback on the ______________.

pituitary

18

What happens at midcycle in women?

Estradiol becomes a positive feedback and stimulates a surge of LH and FSH

19

In females, the Leydig cells are called ________. Both have LH receptors and cannot make estrogen.

theca

20

How are Sertoli and granulosa cells similar?

Both have FSH receptors, aromatase, and make inhibin

21

Testosterone works on __________ to stimulate spermatogenesis.

Sertoli cells

22

Theca cells produce ____________ which goes to granulosa cells to become ____________.

androstenedione; estradiol

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