Flashcards in Ionic Bonding Deck (23):
What is Electrostatic attraction ?
This is the attraction between two oppositely charged ions .
Occurs in ionic bonding
What group has strong electronic configuration ?
Noble gases group 0 have a stronger electronic configuration .They have a full outer shell in which they do not react easily .
Elements in other groups do not have full outer shells .This means that they react to gain stable electronic configuration
How does ionic bonding occur ?
Formed by metal and non mental to form ionic compounds .Where oppositely charged held together by strong electrostatic force of attraction .
Occur when an atom loses one or more electrons and donates its atom to different elements .When an atom loses electrons it becomes positively charged and the atom gain becomes - charged because of the imbalance of protons and electrons .
An example of ionic bonding
The bonding in sodium chloride is ionic .Meaning that sodium atom loses electrons in its outer shell which become charged sodium NA+ .Chlorine gains an electron which become negatavey charged cholerine ion Meaning that sodium atoms has a full outer shell .
What is Giant ionic lattice
is the regular arrangement of positive ions /negative ions .
What happens when a non mental atom gains an electron ?
It will get a stable electronic structure .If an atom gains an electron negative ions is formed .Because there will be more negative charged protons in the nucleus .
What does ionic bonding depend on ?
Such as the strength of the electrostatic force of ionic bonding will depend on the ionic charge /ionic radius of ions .More electron a positive ionic c charge and ionic radius of ions .More electrons positive ion has more shells if ions have more shells radius will be bigger than an ion with few shells
When is the electrostatic force stronger ?
Is stronger when ionic charge is higher .However, the force becomes weaker if ionic radius is bigger .Because ionic radius is bigger the ionic charge is spread over a larger surface area .
What does the giant lattice strength depend on ?
Can depend on the forces of attraction between positive and negative ions .This electrostatic force can depend on two factors :
- Magnitude of the charge on the ions .The distance between the ions .
Why is the melting point for MGO higher than NACI ?
This is because its made of MG+2 and 0-2 ions which have double the charge of Na + and C1- ions so the attraction between them is harder to overcome .02- ions are also smaller than C1- ions, so the ions is Mg0 can pack together more closey .This also makes their attractiontaion harder to overcome .
Each magnesium atoms donates two electrons to the oxygen atom makes a stronger bond when sodium atoms transfer one electron to chlorine atoms
Magnesium is small in radius so magnesium can get much closer to oxygen which make the bond stronger .More energy is needed to separate these ions .
Properties of ionic bonding and giant lattices ?
Have high melting and boiling points due to strong force .
Ionic substances can conduct electricity through the movement of charged ions
They are free to move and can conduct electricity when molten and dissolved .
Many ionic compounds dissolve in water .This is because the polar water molecules cluster around ions ,so separate them from each .
Strength is in the giant ionic lattices is a function of both the charge on each ion and radius of ion .
Greater charger = Strong lattice
Small size = Stronger lattice
Determined by electronegativity between elements
What is the different between radius ?
Difference radii is based on the different numbers of protons in nuclei .
Positive ion has smaller radius because of electrons are strongly attracted to positive nucleus .
Negative ions with same isoelectronic arrangement will have a larger radius because total negative charge on electron will exceed the positive charge on nucleus so electrons less firmly held by nucleus .
The reactivity of an ion
The smaller the ionic radius the more tighther the eltrons are held and less reactive the ion will be as energy is needed to remove it
However , if an ion gains an electron the smaller the ionic radius the more easily another electron ill be attracted
Larger ionic radius electrons lost more easily gained less easily .
Arrangements of the ions in an ionic lattice
The ionic radii determines the coordination number .This ultimately affects the results crystal structure of the lattice .
Ionic solid ions which are held in a position cannot conduct electricity .
Molten ionic substance can conduct electricity the ion .
What is the formation of cation ?
Formed by metals they are negative .
What is the formation of anions ?
This is by electron affinities energy can change involved when a mole of negative ion form a mole of gaseous atom in group 4 and 6 both form negative ions .6 forms ions more readily due to greater electron affinity .
Formed by non-metals
Are ionic compounds solid ?
Ionic compounds are always solid at room temperature .They have giant structures and therefore high melting temperatures .This is because in order to melt an ionic compound .Energy must be supplied to break up the lattice of ions .
When do ionic compounds conduct electricity ?
When molten or dissolved in water but not solid .This is because ions carry the current are free to move in the liquid state but are free in the solid state .
How are ionic bonding formed ?
Electron are transferred from a non metal or a metal or non mental to metal .
They become ions due to their charges becoming a positive or a negative .
Who is greedier non metal or metals ?
Non -metals have more desire because of they have a higher electronegativity so therefore it will take over an electron whereas a metal has a lower electronegativity therefore it will not have much desire in taking the electron .
Why do mgo and nac1 conduct electricity? /
Mg0 and NaC1 melt the ions are free to move and they'll conduct electricity.
6 maker question
Describe as fully as you can what happens when magnesium reacts with iodine to make magnesium iodide .
Magnesium has two electrons in its outer shell, to gain a full outer shell magnesium will need to loose 2 electrons to form a MG+2 ion which is stable .
However, iodine has 7 electrons in its outer shell to gain a full outer shell it will need to gain one more electron to form I - ion
Magnesium on the other hand will need to loose two of its electrons in its outer shell to gain a stable electronic structure .Therefore both the iodide atoms will gain 2 electrons to complete their stable electronic separately this will means it will become 1- whereas magnetism with become MG +2
Magnesium is a metal and iodide is a non-metal they form ionic bonding .