Ionic, covalent and metallic bonding Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ionic, covalent and metallic bonding Deck (40):
1

Which bonding is with two metals ?

Metalic

2

Which bonding is with two non-metals ?

Covalent

3

Which bonding is with a metal and a non-metal ?

Ionic

4

How does ionic bonding occur ?

When the metals want to lose electrons and the non-metals want to gain electrons. They do this so they both have a full outer shell.

5

What is it called when an ion gets a full outer shell if it is not a Nobel gas ?

stable

6

What is it called when a Nobel gas has a full outer shell as they always do ?

inert

7

what charge does the metal have when it looses an electron ?

positive

8

what charge does the metal have when it gains an electron ?

negative

9

what are the 7 steps to drawing an ion ?

1. draw a nucleus
2. add the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus
3. draw shells
4. add electrons (not any that have been lost)
5. add square bracket
6. add charge
7. put electronic configuration underneath ion with square bracket and charge on it

10

What must you draw before drawing the ion ?

the atom at the beginning

11

when drawing an ion that has gained electrons how must you draw them on the ions shells ?

in a different shape (if the electrons on the atom are crosses put them on as circles)

12

if the metal lithium gives an electron to the non-metal fluorine what name does it now have ?

lithium fluoride

13

what is the attraction between the ions called ?

electrostatic attraction

14

what are the steps to drawing an ion when there is more than one atom involved ?

draw it the same as before but put a times sign and then the number of atoms included (if you were using 3 fluroines put a X3 outside the bracket at the bottom corner)

15

what are the 6 steps to knowing which ion has a higher melting and boiling point ?

1. draw both ions
2. (ion name) has charges of ......+ and ........-
3. ion name) has charges of ......+ and ........-
4. (ion name with more + charge) has a stronger electrostatic attraction
5. this means more energy is needed to break the (ion name) bonds
6. so it has a higher melting and boiling point

16

what is the name of the form of a group of oppositely charged ions ?

a giant ionic lattice

17

what happens when a substance is brittle ?

it breaks because the pressure has moved the oppositely charged ions so they repel because they are aligned with ions of the same charge

18

why can't ionic substances conduct electricity ?

electricity is the movement of charged particles, but ionic substances don't have any electrons that can move, even though they have ions but they are in a lattice so they can't move either

19

what does aqueous mean ?

dissolved in water

20

what does molten mean ?

this allows the ions to move

21

in bonding what does OILRIG stand for ?

Oxidation Is Loss Reduction Is Gain

22

if lithium and nitrogen reacted together what would the new formulae be ?

lithium nitride

23

in ionic bonding how do the ions stay attached ?

by a strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions

24

why do ionic compound only conduct electricity when dissolved or molten ?

they can only conduct electricity when their ions are free to move so only if they are liquid

25

what happens in covalent bonding ?

when atoms share a pair of electrons

26

what is a covalent bond ?

an electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and the nuclei of atoms

27

why do simple covalent (molecular) structures have low melting and boiling points ?

because they have a weak intermolecular force which is easily broken down

28

why can't simple covalent (molecular) structures conduct electricity ?

they don't have any free electrons or an overall electric charge

29

what is the trend between boiling points and the length of the molecule ?

small molecules = low boiling point
large molecules = high boiling point

30

what is the name for the structure of diamond and graphite ?

giant covalent structures

31

what are the properties of diamond ?

- it is carbon with 4 covalent bonds
- very strong covalent bonds
- lots of energy is needed to break the bonds
- high melting and boiling points

32

what are the properties of diamond ? (6 things)

- each carbon has 4 covalent bonds
- very strong covalent bonds
- lots of energy is needed to break the bonds
- high melting and boiling points
- very strong- any pressure that is applied is spread out through out the structure
- they are brittle

33

what are the properties of graphite ? (5 things)

- each carbon has 3 covalent bonds
- has a weak intermolecular force between the layers
- layers are able to slide over each other
- high melting and boiling points
- lots of energy is needed to break their bonds

34

why does diamond have higher melting and boiling points than graphite ?

it has 4 covalent bonds but graphite has 3

35

what is diamond usually used for in industries ?

as cutting tools

36

what is graphite usually used for in industries ?

a solid lubricant

37

what are the properties of fullerenes ? (5 things)

- balls of carbon
- they roll (good lubricant)
- there are only 60+ carbons
- simple covalent molecules
- have low melting and boiling points because between them there is only a weak intermolecular force

38

how does metallic bonding work ?

- the metals want to lose electrons
- when they bond they put the electrons they don't want in the sea of delocalised electrons
- the ions then become attracted to the negative charge of the electron from the sea of delocalised electrons; this hold the structure together
- held together by the strong electrostatic attraction

39

what are the properties if the metals in terms of they bonding ?

- don't want to gain electrons (reduction)
- don't want to share electrons
- only want to lose electrons (oxidation)

40

why does the higher the charge of a metal ion mean the ion has a higher melting and boiling point ?

because the higher the charge means that the bonds are harder to break/overcome which means more energy is needed to break them