Ischaemia and Infarction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ischaemia and Infarction Deck (19):
1

Define Necrosis

The spectrum of morphological changes which follows deaths of cells ad tissues, in a living organism

2

What are some important metabolic aberrations which commonly result from cell injury due to ischaemia?

Reduced oxidative phosphorylation
Failure of sodium pump
Influx of water and loss of K+
Influx of Ca+
Reduced glycogen synthesis
Reduced protein synthesis

3

What are some of the causes of arterial occlusion?

Arterial thrombosis
Embolus
Vascular spasm
Vascular disease with out thrombosis e.g. atherosclerosis
External compression

4

Aside from arterial occlusion, what are two other abnormalities that may result in ischaemia?

Venous occlusion and occlusion of small blood vessels e.g. capallaries

5

What are some common causes of venous occlusion?

External compression and in-situ thrombosis of veins

6

What are some common causes of capillary occlusion?

Fat embolism, external compression, gas embolism, chronic myeloid leukaemia

7

What are possible outcomes of ischaemia?

No clinical or pathological effect
Angina
Arrhythmia
Reversible cell injury
Irreversible cell injury
Atrophy
Fibrosis
Death

8

What are variables that influence the outcome of occlusion of vascular supply to an organ or tissue?

Architecture of blood supply, rate of development, completeness and duration of occlusion, tolerance of tissues to occlusion and systemic factors like general state of circulation

9

What is the first microscopic change seen of infarction following ischaemic injury?

Nuclear pyknosis

10

How can a blood test facilitate a diagnosis of infarction?

Raised WCC, raised ESR, or a measurement of enzyme released into the blood

11

What are some functional consequences of coronary artery narrowing?

Angina, cardiac arrythmia

12

What are the most serious consequences of cardiac aneurysm?

Heart failure
Source of thromo-embolus to other organisms

13

What do old cerebral infarcts look like?

Usually these appear as a cavity as a result of liquefactive necrosis, and often have surrounding gliosis (reactive change of glial cells to damage)

14

If a patient dies suddenly from a pulmonary lung embolus, will any changes in the lung tissue be seen/

No - morphological changes of infarction take hours to develop

15

Define ischaemia

The restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism

16

Define infarct

A small localized area of dead tissue resulting from failure of blood supply

17

Define infarction

obstruction of the blood supply to an organ or region of tissue, typically by a thrombus or embolus, causing local death of the tissue.

18

What is a likely pathological outcome of complete occlusion of the inferior mesenteric cavity?

Infarction of the bowel

19

What is a likely pathological outcome of gradual occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery?

Ischaemic colitis, a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large intestine result from inadequate blood supply

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