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Flashcards in ISDS 4120 Exam 1 Deck (81):
1

Backbone Network

-a large, central high-speed network that connects several LANs, other BNs, MANs, and WANs that may span several feet to several miles

2

Line of Business (LOB)

-a distinct area of activity within an enterprise

3

Local Area Network (LAN)

-a network that is located in a small geographic area and whose communication technology provides a high-bandwidth, low-cost medium to which many nodes can be connected

4

Enterprise

-an organization whose boundary is defined by commonly-held goals, processes, and resources

5

Expectation Management

-the process of gathering, incorporating, and measuring stakeholder expectations for IT

6

Change Management

-the process of steering expectations and involving stakeholders in how a process or activity will be changed, so that stakeholders have some control over the change and may be more accepting of it

7

Strategic Inflection Point

-the point in which an organization decides whether or not to change their strategy

8

IT-Business Alignment

-the degree to which the IT mission, objectives, plans, and technology support are supported by the business mission objectives, plans, and business process

9

Valley of Death

-time of chaos when a fundamental business strategy is changing, firms will either emerge and grow or die out

10

What are the 4 types of Organizational (Corporate) Strategy?

1.) Analyzer
2.) Prospector
3.) Defender
4.) Reactor

11

Defender

-locates and maintains a secure niche in a relatively stable product or service area

12

Prospector

-operates within a broad product-market domain that undergoes periodic redefinition
-values first in in new product and market areas
-responds rapidly to early signals concerning areas of productivity
-may not maintain market strength in all areas it enters

13

Analyzer

-attempts to maintain a stable, limited line of products or services
-frequently second in with a more cost-efficient product or service
-seldom a major competitor in areas compatible with its stable product-market base

14

Reactor

-responds in those areas where it is forced to by environmental pressures
-doesn't have a consistent product-market orientation
-not aggressive as competitors
-not willing to take risks

15

EA Framework Similarities

-all focus on how to align the technical decisions of IT with the strategic and operational needs of the firm

16

EA Framework Differences

-components
-ease of implementation
-tools
-methods
-best practices

17

The key to the EA Framework is that it requires a complete integration of:

-strategy
-business processes
-information
-technology
-infrastructure/networks

18

The 5 aspects (levels) of the EA Grid?

1.) goals and initiatives
2.) products and services
3.) data and information
4.) systems and applications
5.) networks and infrastructure

19

Goals and Initiatives Artifacts

1.) strategic plan
2.) SWOT analysis
3.) concept of operations scenario
4.) concept of operations diagram
5.) balanced scorecard

20

Goals and Initiatives Components

-mission statement
-strategic goals
-strategic initiatives

21

Products and Services Artifacts

1.) business plan
2.) node connectivity diagram
3.) swim lane process diagram
4.) business process-service model
5.) business process/product matrix
6.) use case narrative and diagram
7.) investment business case

22

Products and Services Components

-business services
-business products
-IT capital planning portfolio

23

Data and Information Artifacts

1.) knowledge management plan
2.) information exchange matrix
3.) object state-transition diagram
4.) object event sequence diagram
5.) logical data model
6.) physical data model
7.) activity/entity (CRUD) matrix
8.) data dictionary

24

Data and Information Components

-knowledge warehouses
-information systems
-databases

25

Systems and Applications Artifacts

1.) systems interface diagram
2.) systems communication description
3.) systems interface matrix
4.) system data flow diagram
5.) systems/operations matrix


6.) systems data exchange matrix
7.) systems performance matrix
8.) systems evolution diagram
9.) web application diagram

26

Systems and Applications Components

-software applications
-web service
-service bus and middleware
-ERP solutions

27

Networks and Infrastructure Artifacts

1.) network connectivity diagram
2.) network inventory
3.) capital equipment inventory
4.) building blueprints
5.) network center diagram
6.) cable plant diagram
7.) rack elevation diagram

28

Networks and Infrastructure Components

-data networks
-telecommunications network
-video networks
-mobile networks
-transmission backbone

29

Eras of Business/Role of IT

-industrial era
-information technology
-digital revolution
-platform revolution

30

Industrial Era

-IT used to perform existing information more quickly and efficiently

31

Information Economy

-IT used to manage work better

32

Digital Revolution

-IT makes persuasive changes in the structure and operation of the economy

33

Platform Revolution

-IT enables network-based stategies

34

Early Pioneers of EA Frameworks

-Walker
-Zachman

35

Walker

-60s
-produces architecture planning documents, later known as Business Systems Planning

36

John Zachman

-80s
-published Business Information Control Study in IBM systems journals
-widely recognized as leader in EA
-identifies the need to use logical construction blueprint for defining and controlling the integration of systems and their components

37

OSI Model Layer

1.) physical
2.) data link
3.) network
4.) transport
5.) application

38

OSI Purpose: Physical

-transmit the message

39

OSI Purpose: Data Link

-move a message from one device to the next
1.) controls hardware
2.) formats the message
3.) error checking

40

OSI Purpose: Network

-deciding where the message goes
1.)addressing
2.) routing

41

OSI Purpose: Transport

-end-to-end management
1.) link application layer to network
2.) segmenting and tracking
3.) flow control

42

OSI Purpose: Application

-users access to network, software to perform work

43

OSI Protocols: Physical

-100BASE-T
-802.11n

44

OSI Protocols: Data Link

-ethernet

45

OSI Protocols: Network

-IP
-ICMP

46

OSI Protocols: Transport

-TCP
-UDP

47

OSI Protocols: Application

-HTTP
-SMTP
-DNS
-FTP
-DHCP
-IMAP
-POP
-SSL

48

Results of EA

-rationalize spending
-allows for better decisions, planning, access to information, and communication about IT

49

Challenges Confronting Firms Today

*-globalization
-rise of platform economy
-emergence of social firm
-transformation of business enterprise

50

De Jure Standards

-formalized by the industry or governmental body

51

De Facto Standards

-widely accepted, but not formalized
-often become de jure

52

Components of EA Management Plan

-program management
-current architecture summary
-future architecture summary
-EA glossary and references

53

EA Implementation Plan

1.) establish an EA program
2.) EA framework and tool selection
3.) documentation of the EA
4.) use and maintain the EA

54

The 3 Types of IT-Business Alignment

1.) strategic
2.) structural
3.) social

55

Strategic Alignment

-congruence of the firms IS strategy with business strategy

56

Structural Alignment

-congruence of the business and IS structures within an organization

57

Social Alignment

-level of mutual understanding of and commitment to the business and IT mission, objectives, and plans

58

EA Artifacts

-the documentation that provide the information needed for each component

59

EA Components

-the resources at each level of the framework

60

3 Framework Dimensions of EA Grid

1.) artifacts
2.) levels
3.) segments

61

Golden Rule of IT

-there are no IT decisions, just business decisions about IT

62

Five Levels of EA

1.) goals and initiatives
-strategic plan
2.) products and services
-business plan
3.) data and information
-knowledge management plan
4.) system and applications
-systems interface diagram
5.) networks and infrastructure
-network configuration diagram

63

The 4 Risks of EA

1.) financial
2.) lack of acceptance
3.) schedule delays
4.) software and tools

64

EA Equation

EA = Strategy + Business + Technology

65

6 Core Elements of EA

1.) governance
2.) methodology
3.) framework
4.) artifacts
5.) standards
6.) best practices

66

EA Stakeholders

-chief information officer (CIO)
-sponsor
-chief architect
-line of business managers
-solutions architect
-systems architect
-data architect
-EA tool export
-end user representative
-webmaster
-research analyst

67

Establish an EA Program

-establish a chief architect
-establish an EA implementation methodology
-establish EA governance
-develop an an EA communications plan to gain stakeholder buy-in

68

EA Framework and Tool Selection

-select a documentation framework
-identify lines of business
-identify the components to be documented enterprise wide
-select documentation methods
-select software tools to support documentation
-select and establish a repository

69

Documentation of EA

-evaluate existing business and technology documentation
-document current views of existing components
-develop future scenarios
-identify assumptions for each scenario
-use scenarios to document future frameworks
-develop a management plan

70

Use and Maintain the EA

-use EA information to support planning and decision-making
-update current and future views of EA components
-maintain repository for the future
-release updates to management plan

71

-Facilitate the establishment and ongoing operation of the program
-Lead the resolution of EA issues
-Integrate EA and other governance

CIO

72

-Be the champion of the EA program
-Provide resources
-Assist in resolving EA issues

Sponsor

73

-Manage the EA program and documentation process
-Select and implement the EA framework and documentation methodology
-Identify EA standards
-Manage EA configuration management

Chief Architect

74

-Participate in EA program decision-making
-Promote the identification of IT-related requirements and EA solutions for each LOB

Line of Business Manager

75

-Collaboratively identify solutions for IT-related problems within LOB
-Support EA documentation

Solutions Architect

76

-Provide technical analysis and design support for systems-related EA component selection and implementation
-Ensure that IT systems meet integration and interoperability requirments
-Support EA documentation

Systems Architect

77

-Provide technical analysis and design support for database-related EA component selection and implementation
-Ensure that databases meet integration and interoperability requirements
-Support EA documentation

Data Architect

78

-Maintenance of EA software and repository

EA Tool Expert

79

-Identify end user requirements for EA components
-Provide feedback on the effectiveness of solutions

End User Representatives

80

-Maintain EA website

Webmaster

81

-Document and verify LOB and end user requirements
-Assist in EA component design and documentation activities

Research Analyst