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Flashcards in ISDS 4120 Exam 2 Deck (88):
1

What does an application layer address using TCP look like?

-the application layer contains software that converts incoming and outgoing data from 1 format to another
-www.lsu.edu

2

The functions of the application layer?

-data storage
-data access logic
-application logic
-presentation logic

3

Data Storage

?

4

Data Access Logic

-processing required to access the data
-often means database queries in SQL

5

Application Logic

-can be simple or complex

6

Presentation Logic

-presentation of information to the user and the acceptance of the user's commands

7

The division of software on clients versus servers for two tier architecture?

-the server is responsible for the data and the client, the application and presentation

8

The division of software on clients versus servers for three tier architecture?

-uses 3 sets of computers
-the software on the client customer is responsible for presentation logic
-application server is responsible for the application logic
-a separate database server is responsible for the data access logic and data storage

9

Where server name resolution is done?

-network layer

10

What does TCP use to reassemble packets in the correct order?

-sequence numbers

11

The attributes of a sound wave?

-amplitude
-frequency
-phase

12

Amplitude

-height of wave (decibels)

13

Frequency

-waves per second (hertz)
-wavelength is the inverse of frequency

14

Phase

-wave direction (degrees) or the point at which the wave begins

15

Routing

-process of identifying what path to have a packet take through a network from sender to receiver

16

The 3 fundamental approaches to routing?

1.) centralized routing
2.) static routing
3.) dynamic routing

17

Centralized Routing

-all routing decisions are made by one central computer or router
-commonly used in host-behavior networks

18

Static Routing

-decentralized, all computers or routers make their own decisions
-self-adjusting, automatically adapt to changes in the network configuration
-decisions made in a fixed manner by individual routers or computers

19

Dynamic Routing

-decisions made in a decentralized manner by individual computers
-attempts to improve network performance by routing messages over the fastest route possible

20

Different types of dynamic routing?

-distance vector
-link state

21

Distance Vector Dynamic Routing?

-routers count the number of hops along a route

22

Link State Dynamic Routing?

-based on the number of hops, circuit speed, and traffic congestion

23

What does the transport layer do to the messages?

-segmentation and reassembly
-session management
-end-to-end delivery of messages

24

How the capacity of a circuit is determined?

-bandwidth

25

The different types of data?

-digital
-analog

26

Digital data

-transmission involves discrete binary values
-0 or 1

27

Analog Data

-transmission involves continuous waves

28

The factors to consider when selecting media to be used in a network?

-type of network
-cost
-transmission distance
-security
-error rates
-transmission speeds

29

Contention

-computers wait until the circuit is free and then transmit whenever they have data to send
-commonly used in ethernet lans

30

Collision

-in high-volume networks, many computers want to transmit, and the probability of a collision using contention is high
-very costly due to terms of throughput because they waste circuit capacity during the collision and require both computers to retransmit later
-controlled access prevents collisions and make more efficient use of the circuit

31

Between Contention and Collision, which one is better for different types of networks?

?

32

Polling

-is the process of sending a signal to a client computer that gives it permission to transmit
-clients store all messages that need to be transmitted

33

How an application layer address is translated to an IP address?

-server name resolution
??

34

Physical Circuits

-connect devices and include wires

35

Logical Circuits

-refers to the transmission characteristics of the circuit

36

Bottleneck

-a circuit that's filled almost to its capacity and thus is the critical point that determines whether users get good or bad response times

37

Star Network

-a switch connects all computers to 1 central computer that routes messages to the appropriate computer

38

Ring Network

-each node connects to exactly 2 other nods, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node
-connects all computers in a closed loop with each computer linked to the next

39

Full Mesh Network

-each network node (workstation or other device) is connected directly to all the others
-every computer is connected to every other computer

40

Hubs

-least expensive and intelligent
-if a message comes in for a specific computer, it sends the message to all computers
-layer 1

41

Switch

-similar to hub
-learns based upon experience, where a specific computer is located
-layer 2

42

Router

-most expensive and intelligent
-using protocols, know where every computer is located on a network

43

Hubs and Switches

-link cables from different devices
-acts as repeaters, reconstructing, and strengthening incoming signals

44

Types of Backbone Networks

-logical
-physical

45

Logical

-how the network works conceptually

46

Physical

-how the network is physically installed

47

Backbone Network Options

-switched backbones
-VLAN switches
-routed backbones

48

Switched Backbones

-most common type of BN used in the distribution layer
-use a star topology with 1 switch at its center
-switch serves each LAN
-Pros:
-inexpensive and fast
-Cons:
-not as flexible

49

VLAN Switches

-intended for use in large networks that have special requirements

50

VLAN Switches Advantages

-more flexible sub-netting
-better managed traffic flow, which may lead to faster performance

51

VLAN Switches Disadvantages

-complex
-may increase management when VLAN membership change

52

Routed Backbones

-move packets along the backbone on the basis of their network layer address
-most commonly used to connect different buildings on the same enterprise campus backbone network

53

Routed Backbone Description

-LANs are connected to a switch
-each backbone switch is connected to a router
-breaks the network into separate subnets
-segments the network
-typically used at core layer, but sometimes at distribution layer

54

Routed Backbone also called

-subnetted backbones
-hierarchical backbones

55

Routed Backbones Advantages

-LAN segmentation

56

Routed Backbones Disadvantages

-tend to be slower
-more expensive
-harder to manage

57

Different approaches to monitor connections on a network?

-network management
-simple network management tool (SNMP)

58

Network Management

-process of operating, monitoring, and controlling the network to ensure it works as intended and provides value to users

59

Simple Network Management Tool SNMP

-a management network requires both hardware and software
-managed devices to monitor, collect, and transmit traffic reports and problem alerts
-network management software to store, organize, and analyze these reports and alerts

60

SNMP Managed Devices

-managed devices are more expensive than unmanaged devices because they have a CPU and software built into them

61

The definition and purpose of network segmentation

-breaking up large files into smaller segments
-may be passed individually to the application layer or after reassembly

62

The activities associated with each of the stages of network design?

-needs analysis
-technology design
-cost assessment

63

Needs Analysis

-understand current and future network needs of various users, departments, and applications
-clients and servers
-circuits and devices

64

Technology Design

-examine available technologies to determine which meet or exceed needs
-if needs are difficult to estimate, build higher capacity
-baseline, geographic scope, app systems, network users, needs categorization

65

Cost Assessment

-relative costs of technologies are considered
-off the shelf, request for proposal

66

The definition and types of media access control?

-contention
-roll-call polling
-hub polling

67

Roll-Call Polling

-the controller works consecutively through a list of clients, first polling client 1, then client 2, and so on until all are polled
-can be modified to select clients in priority so that some get polled more often than others

68

Hub Polling

-token passing
-1 device starts the poll and passes it to the next computer on the multipoint circuit, until it reaches them all

69

The different layers of the backbone architecture?

-access layer
-distribution layer
-core layer

70

Access Layer

-how users access network
-LAN, WLAN

71

Distribution Layer

-BN that connects access layer to core layer within building

72

Core Layer

-connects BNs between buildings and to WAN/Internet

73

Private WAN

-isn't affected by internet disruptions, more capatible

74

VPN

-allows secure remote access to a network via internet using PVCs that act like circuits

75

Options to improve backbone performance?

-choosing the best routing protocols
-upgrading or adding circuits
-move servers closer to end users, reduce traffic

76

Visioning

-the development of a plan, goal, or vision for the future

77

Options to monitor and control a network

-designing for network performance
-configuration management
-performance and fault management
-end user support
-cost management

78

Layers of the OSI Model?

1.) physical layer
2.) data link layer
3.) network layer
4.) transport layer
5.) application layer

79

Physical Layer

-transmit the message
-100BASE-T
-802.11n

80

Data Link Layer

-moves a message from 1 device to another
1.) controls hardware
2.) formats the message
3.) error checking
-ethernet

81

Network Layer

-deciding where the message goes
1.) addressing
2.) routing
-IP, ICMP

82

Transport Layer

-end-to-end management
1.) link app layer to network
2.) segmenting and tracking
3.) flow control
-TCP, UDP

83

Application Layer

-users access to network, software to perform work
-HTTP, SMTP, DNS, FTP, DHCP, IMAP, POP, SSL

84

The 3 choices when outsourcing to the cloud and be able to match them to the grid

-software as a service (SaaS)
-platform as a service (PaaS)
-infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

85

Software as a Service SaaS

-all application components and associated hardware/software outsource
-based on multitenancy
-ex. salesforce.com

86

Platform as a Service PaaS

-application logic and data are managed internally
-ex. microsoft azure

87

Infrastructure as a Service IaaS

-all hardware is outsourced

88

The 6 components of a LAN

1.) clients
2.) servers
3.) network interface cards (NICs)
4.) network cables
5.) hubs, switches, and access points
6.) software