Flashcards in Islam Section 1 Deck (34):
Recite quotes for 2.1.1 The Six Beliefs of Islam
"The men of faith. Each one believeth in ....., His ........., His ........ and His ............"
"It is righteousness to believe in ...... and the ...... ...... and the ......... and the ....... and the ........."
"The men of faith. Each one believeth in God and His angels, His books and His apostles."
"It is righteousness to believe in God and the Last Day and the Angels and the Book and the Messengers."
Name the 6 beliefs of Islam. (Sunni Muslims)
Allah's unity (Tawhid)
Holy books (Kitub)
The last day (Akirah)
Life after death (Akirah)
Why are the 6 beliefs important to Sunni Muslims?
They summarise the Muslim faith
Believing in Tawhid shows that God is the only one, the all powerful creator who is the same God that Jews and Christians worship
Belief in angels shows that God can communicate with humans
What do most Sunni Muslim communities believe the 6 beliefs mean today?
All people are created equal in the sight of Allah
In Islam there are no priests, priesthood or holy men with special authority, Muhammad was the last prophet so humans can't have God's special authority
Salvation comes through believing the 6 beliefs
Recite quotes for 2.1.2 The Five Roots in Shi'a Islam
"He is ......., the ...... and ......., God the ........., the absolute; He begetteth not nor is he begotten; and there is none like unto him."
"Whosoever knows not the ........ of his age dies ........ ......... ..... ...... .........."
"He is God, the One and Only, God the Eternal, the absolute; He begetteth not nor is he begotten; and there is none like unto him."
"Whosoever knows not the Imam of his age dies the death of a heathen."
Name the 5 roots in Shi'a Islam.
Belief in the oneness of Allah (Tawhid)
Belief in Allah's justice (Adalat)
Belief in Allah's prophets from Adam to Muhammad
Belief in the successors of Muhammad (Imams)
Belief in the day of judgement
Why are the 5 roots important to Shi'a Muslims?
They are the basis of Shi'a Islam - it is from the roots that religion grows
They are the 5 principles of faith
They come from the teachings of the Qur'an and the 12 Imams
Which of the 5 roots do Sunni Muslims not agree with?
Number 4 - The successors of Muhammad (Imams)
Name the 3 main sects of Shi'a Islam
Twelvers - most Shi'as are twelvers, they believe in 12 imams and the 12th is in hiding (the hidden imam)
Ismaili (Seveners) - the 7th imam Isma'il was the final imam
Ahmadiyya - developed from Ismailis in Pakistan accept the Sunni beliefs rather than the roots.
Recite quotes for 2.1.3 The Nature of Allah
"Worship ...... ......, and avoid all ........ ..........."
"In the name of ......., Most ........., Most ..........."
"We are nearer to man than his ........... ........."
"Whithersoever ye turn, there is ........ ............ of ......."
"Worship Allah alone, and avoid all false deities."
"In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful."
"We are nearer to man than his jugular vein."
"Whithersoever ye turn, there is the presence of God."
Name the main characteristics of God revealed in the Qur'an.
Omnipotence - all powerful
Beneficence and mercy
Transcendence and imminence - beyond humans yet close to them
Why are the characteristics of Allah important for Muslims?
Tawhid means Muslims only worship Allah
Omnipotence shows God is in control of everything
Compassion and mercy means Muslims should be merciful and forgiving
Recite quotes for 2.1.4 Risalah (prophets)
"We believe in ....... and the revelation given to us, and to .........., ............, .........., ............. and the Tribes, and that given to ......... and ..........., and that given to all prophets from their lord."
"......... was not a Jew nor yet a Christian, but he was ...... ..... ....... and bowed his will to God's which is Islam."
"We believe in Allah and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to all prophets from their lord."
"Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian, but he was true in faith and bowed his will to God's, which is Islam."
Name the main prophets of Islam.
Adam - built the Ka'aba in Mecca
Ibrahim (Abraham) - restored the Ka'aba after it had been destroyed, given the first holy book Sahifa Ibrahim (the scrolls of Abraham)
Isma'il - Ibrahim's son, regarded as the ancestor of Muhammad
Musa (Moses) - led Jews out of slavery, given the Torah / Tawrat
Dawud (David) - the king of Israel, given the book of Zabur (psalms)
Isa (Jesus) - given the book Injil (gospels), not the son of God
Muhammad - given the Qur'an, final prophet, perfect example
What do Muslims believe about the prophets?
Prophets were ordinary humans
The Qur'an is the final unalterable word of God
Muhammad received the final message from Allah so Islam is the first and last religion
Recite quotes for 2.1.5 Muslim Holy Books (Kitub)
"It was we who revealed the ........ to .......: therein was .......... and ........"
"Proclaim (.......) in the name of ...... ....... and cherisher who created."
"It was we who revealed the Torah to Moses: therein was guidance and light."
"Proclaim (recite) in the name of thy lord and cherisher who created."
Why are there so many holy books in Islam?
All of the books before the Qur'an were distorted.
What are the different Muslim beliefs about the holy books?
Most Muslims believe that God made one holy book, the Qur'an, which is his eternal word and each holy book given to a prophet was simply a copy of that 'heavenly original'
Some Muslim scholars believe that the earlier holy books only contained certain parts of the Qur'an, which was why they could be distorted. Only Muhammad was given God's full eternal word in the undistortable Qur'an
How did the Qur'an come to us?
When Muhammad died, the first caliph decided that it was essential for there to be an authorised version of the revelations and used Muhammad's chief secretary to do this
The authorised version was finalised by the third caliph, uthman, so that now all Qur'ans have the same surahs, words and letters
Uthman organised the Qur'an by length of surah so that surah 2 is the longest and surah 114 the shortest
What do Muslims believe about the holy books before the Qur'an?
God has always made sure people knew what to believe and how to live
The old books have been distorted and so are no longer God's word
The Jewish Tenakh and the Christian Bible are not holy books for most Muslims
Recite quotes for 2.1.6 Malaikah (angels)
"Allah created angels from .......... without ............, the beasts from ............ without ............, and mankind from both ........... and ................."
"The angel of death put in charge of you will ...... ......... .........: then shall ye be brought back to ...... ......."
"Allah created angels from intellect without sensuality, the beasts from sensuality without intellect, and mankind from both intellect and sensuality."
"The angel of death put in charge of you will take your souls: then shall ye be brought back to your lord."
Why did Allah create angels?
Angels are his way of communicating with humanity. Angels have no free will and therefore can not sin.
What do Muslims believe angels do?
They praise Allah in heaven
They are the guardians of the gates of hell
They record the good and bad deeds of humans to present to Allah on the last day as the basis for his judgement
Name the main angels and their functions.
Jibril (Gabriel) - the chief angel who delivered Allah's messages to the prophets
Mika'il (Michael) - guardian of heaven
Izra'il - the angel of death
Why are angels important to Muslims?
Allah is so great and holy that he can't communicate directly with humans
Allah loves his creation and has sent angels with his message so that if humans follow the message they will go to heaven
Although his angels perform work for him, Allah is in ultimate control of human destiny
Recite quotes for 2.1.7 Al-Qadr (fate)
"The command of God is a ....... ........."
"In all things the .......... .......... is God's."
"Verily my lord understandeth best the mysteries of ....... ......... ....... ...... ....."
"The command of God is a decree determined."
"In all things the master planning is God's"
"Verily my lord understandeth best the mysteries of all he planneth to do."
What does Al-Qadr mean?
Al-Qadr means predestination or fate and for Muslims it means that everything follows a divine plan
How does belief in Al-Qadr contradict belief in Akirah?
Akirah teaches that there will be a judgement when Allah judges everyone on the basis of their beliefs and actions, but people can only be punished for things they choose to do so if Al-Qadr exists humans don't have a choice.
How do Muslims respond to Al-Qadr and Akirah contradicting each other?
Many Shi'as follow the Mu'tazilites belief that Allah created humans with free will and made them his vicegerents so it is up to humans what happens and they are responsible for their actions
Sunni Muslims follow another theologian (al'Ashari) who said that Allah knows what people do before they do it due to foreknowledge but that people do it of their own free will
What does Al-Qadr mean for Muslims?
Although they may face suffering they don't need to worry about their future as God is in control so all will be well
What they suffer should be accepted as it is part of the plan and will have a good outcome
Muslims have free will so they can make their own choices and be responsible for their own destinies
Recite quotes for 2.1.8 Akirah (life after death)
"Whoever does ............ will be ............. accordingly, nor will he find, .............. ......., any protector or helper."
"Whoever does evil will be requited accordingly, nor will he find, besides God, any protector or helper."
What do Muslims believe about the period before the last day? (Barzakh)
Some believe souls are visited by the angel of death and questioned about their faith, and if they give a good Muslim answer they go to heaven
Others believe that after the death of the body the soul hovers over the grave until the last day
Some believe the soul sleeps until the last day
Why is life after death important to Muslims?
The Qur'an teaches there is life after death
Muhammad taught there is life after death
Belief in life after death is one of the six beliefs of Sunni Islam and one of the 5 roots of Shi'a Islam