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CHEMISTRY U4 AOS1 > Isomers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Isomers Deck (18):
1

define: isomer

molecules with the same molecular formula but arranged in different ways.

2

give an overview of all types of isomers

structural isomers
-chain isomers
-positional isomers
stereoisomers
-optical isomers
-geometric isomers (cis-/trans- isomers)

3

describe chain isomers

formed by branching (of alkyl groups)

4

describe positional isomers

functional groups (including multiple bonds) are attached in a different location

5

define: stereoisomer

atoms connected in same order but in different arrangements in space.

6

define: optical isomer

same molecular/ssf different placements of groups around one atom in a molecule.

7

optical isomers are called optical isomers bc

they interact differently with plane polarised light

8

optical isomers are always

chiral

9

define: chiral

objects that are mirror images of each other which cannot be superimposed (eg. feet)

10

define: achiral

objects with atleast one plane of symmetry whose mirror images can be superimposed.

11

all chiral molecules contain aleast one

chiral centre

12

define:c hiral centre

(carbon atom attached to FOUR DIFFERENT GROUPS (groups = all atoms that are attached)

13

molecules with atleast one chiral centre arent always chiral

yep

14

dfeine: geometric isomer

occur when there is restricted rotation around bonds (double bonds/rings)

15

describe cis isomer

when 2 different groups (fg/alkyl) are on the same side of the C=C bond

16

describe trans isomer

dwhen 2 different groups (fg/alkyl) are on the opposite side of the C=C bond

17

define: enantiomer

pair of chiral molecules. Same physical properties (except for how they interact with light), different chemical properties (eg. smell)

18

define: cis-trans isomer

: two different groups (fg/alkyl) are attached to EACH carbon atom involved in a double bond