IT152_Lecture_12_Planning_Principles_2013a Flashcards Preview

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1

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) defines...?

the stages that a system goes through from conception through to its creation.

2

Many SDLCs in use...?

- all follow the same fundamental principles

- Waterfall not suitable

- Other such as Prototype, Spiral, RAD better

3

Phase 1...?

Planning and analysis.

Step 1: Developing the concept

Step 2: Stating the purpose

Step 3: Identifying the target audience

Step 4: Developing the specifications*

Step 5: Design

Step 6: Storyboard and navigation

Step 7: Developing the content

4

Phase 2...?

Creating or development.

Step 8: Authoring the title

Step 9: Testing the title

5

Phase 3....?

Production.

Step 10: Testing the title

Step 11: Post-production

6

Specifications is the task of...?

precisely describing the software to be written, usually in a very clear and precise way.

7

Most projects start with a...?

project specification or client brief or project definition document.

8

When creating a project specification you need to...?

Obtain and analyse the client specification with the project purpose, audience, etc.

9

Once you have a sense of the scope and content then you can...?

plan the structure and allocated time to phases and individual tasks, resources and people.

10

Purpose...?

Why are you doing this work? Describe the desired end result of this project.

11

Objectives...?

What specific outcomes will be achieved, and how will you measure these outcomes?

12

Scope...?

What are the boundaries for this project (for example, type of work, type of client, type of problem, geographic area covered)?

13

Deliverables...?

What will the project deliver as outputs? Where you can, describe deliverables as tangible items like reports, products, or services. Remember to include a date that each deliverable is expected. You’ll use this information to monitor milestones

14

Constraints...?

What things must you take into consideration that will influence your deliverables and schedule? These are external variables that you cannot control but need to manage.

15

Assumptions...?

What assumptions are you making at the start of the project? If necessary, schedule work to confirm these assumptions.

16

Project planning...?

is part of project management, which relates to the use of schedules such as Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment.

17

Planning allows you to...?

- Save time and Money

- Ensure all steps and requirements are covered

- Resources are used efficiently

- Solve dispute if there is any

- Allow for multiple modifications

18

Rule of thumb for development is...?

80% planning and 20% production

19

Initially, the project scope (total outputs requirement) is defined and the appropriate methods for completing the project are determined from...?

the specification.

20

The scope is drawing a boundary around what is...?

required and often more importantly what's not.

21

Tasks necessary to complete the work are listed and grouped into a...?

work breakdown structure.

22

The logical dependencies between tasks are defined using an activity network diagram that enables identification of...?

the critical path.

23

Then the total overall exercise can be estimated (Project Plan) and costs for each activity can be allocated to each resource, giving the...?

total project cost.

24

Scope (project management) of a project is the sum total of all of a project's outputs and...?

their requirements or features.

25

The scope is defined by the..?

requirements.

26

Once scope is defined plan...?

content.

27

Once scope is defined you may have to acquire...?

archived film material, books/art in private collections, legal problems of access to material to overcome.

28

Plan when are where they will be...?

needed.

29

Prioritize requirements can be classified as...?

'mandatory', 'desirable', or 'optional'

30

Separate out the...?

individual tasks.

31

List all the various tasks necessary to...?

complete the work.

32

How long will tasks take to...?

complete

33

What are the critical dependencies between activities and task, these are when one task is a..?

prerequisite of others e.g. Film then edit video.

34

Estimate and allocate the...?

time, cost, and person for each.

35

The logical dependencies between tasks are defined using..?

an activity network diagram that enables identification of the critical path. (CPM)

36

Do not confuse duration with...?

work.

37

It is important to get estimates right for two main reasons...?

- Time estimates drive the setting of deadlines for delivery of projects, and hence peoples' assessments of your readability.

- They often determine the pricing of contracts and hence their profitability.

38

The three elements that can vary in a project estimates...?

time, money and people.

39

When estimating the cost, be sure you include the hidden costs of...?

administration and management.

40

When you are not sure use previous project as a...?

basis.

41

Some production costs can be estimated using...?

metrics.

42

The first stage in estimating time accurately is...?

to fully understand what you need to achieve.

43

Inevitability is the difficult to understand, tricky problems that take...?

the greatest amount of time to solve.

44

The best way to review the job is to...?

list all tasks in full detail. Simple techniques such as Drill-Down are useful for this.

45

Group all tasks into a...?

work breakdown structure or project plan.

46

Derive key milestones and break project into key points to monitor...?

time, cost and outcomes.

47

Set up project plan showing...?

- Estimated Hours Vs Actual Hours

- Estimated Date Vs Actual Completion Date

- Calculate + or – over hours budget

48

The problems in software projects come from three different viewpoints...?

project managers, developers and customers.

49

project managers problems include...?

poor roles definition, lack of estimating and planning skills, lack of decision making skills. Project managers do need to face the schedule, budget and quality constraints.

50

developers problems include...?

lack of knowledge in the application area, lack of knowledge about developing standards, lack of up to date documentations, deadline pressure, changes of application requirements.

51

projects need to be...?

monitored closely to avoid problems.

52

the purpose of the project monitoring and control is to keep...?

the team and management up to date on the projects progress.

53

If the project deviates from the plan, then the project manager can..?

take action to correct the problem.

54

Project monitoring and control involves status meetings to...?

gather status for the team.

55

When changes need to be made, change control is used to...?

keep the products up to date.

56

Techniques such as Gantt Charts, Critical Path Analysis (CPA) reduce large projects down into a...?

set of small projects.

57

With simple projects, tools like Gantt Charts and Critical Path Diagrams are often required but may...?

over complicate project scheduling and communication.

58

The Critical Path Method, (CPM) or Critical Path analysis, is a..?

mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities.

59

The essential technique for using CPM is to construct a model of the project that includes the following...?

- A list of all activities required to complete the project (also known as Work breakdown structure),

- The time (duration) that each activity will take to completion, and

- The dependencies between the activities.

60

Using the 3 values, CPM calculates the longest path of planned activities and to the end of the project, and the earliest and the latest that...?

each activity can start and finish without making the project longer.

61

Risk is a concept that denotes a potential negative impact to...?

a project from a possible future event.

62

A risk management plan should be used to...?

propose effective controls for managing the risks.

63

Risks are calculate by...?

impact or cost x likelihood.