ITA tutorial* Flashcards Preview

Repro > ITA tutorial* > Flashcards

Flashcards in ITA tutorial* Deck (19):
1

some bleeding and possible pain but ongoing pregnancy

threatened miscarriage

2

passage of some but not all the products of conception

incomplete miscarriage

3

what is a hydatidiform mole

pre malignant tumour of trophoblastic villi - no fetus but a collection of fluid filled sacs

4

risks of medical TOP

side effects from tablets - nausea and sickness
need 2 hospital appointments
may be severe pain/heavy bleeding

5

risks of surgical TOP

uterine perforation
infection

6

how long after a miscarriage can a patient start trying to get pregnant again

usually after one period has passed

7

commonest cause of male infertility

idiopathic

8

obstructive causes of male infertility

vasectomy
infection - chlamydia/ghon
congenital absence of VD

9

non constructive causes of male infertility

undescended testis
orchitis
torsion/trauma
chromosomal
hormonal
testicular cancer

10

other causes of male infertility

varicocele
chemo
erectile dysfunction

11

normal size of male testis

prepubertal 1-3ml
pubertal 4ml
adult sizes 12-25ml

12

what causes testis to be reduced in volume

any condition that causes testicular failure can reduce testicular volume - undescended testis, orchitis, klinefelters syndrome, post chemo

13

investigations for azoospermia

examination of genetilia - incl presence of VD and size of testis
endocrine tests - LH, FHS, testosterone, prolactin, thyroid function
chromosome analysis for CF or kilnefelters
testicular biopsy to assess any sperm production and exclude testicular cancer
consider testicular USS if abnormality found of examination

14

management for testicular failure

surgical sperm aspiration -if sperm obtained then use for intracytoplasmic sperm injection

15

risks of sperm aspiration

testocular haematoma/infection
and risk of anaesthesia

16

when does the pronuclear stage occur

within a few hours of fertilisation the male and female pronuclei can be seen

17

4 cell stage occurs when

36-60 hours after fertilisation

18

when does morula stage occur

72-96 hours after fertilisation

19

when does the blastocyte stage occur

5-6 days after fertilisation