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Flashcards in Italian Verbs Basics Deck (107):
1

What are the three main verb groups in Italian?

-ARE, -ERE, and -IRE

Be careful, however, because there are a great deal of irregular verbs, including the most commonly used verbs -- many of them from the -ERE group.

2

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the present indicative?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

-o
-i
-a
-iamo
-ate
-ano

3

Are you required to use subject pronouns in Italian conjugation?

No. Subject pronouns are often omitted since the verb form indicates the subject.

4

Conjugate the verb amare (to love) in the present tense.

  • amo
  • ami
  • ama
  • amiamo
  • amate
  • amano

5

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the present indicative?

  • io ricevo 
  • tu ricevi
  • lui/lei riceve
  • noi riceviamo
  • voi ricevete
  • loro ricevono

6

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the present indicative?

  • dormo
  • dormi
  • dorme
  • dormiamo
  • dormite
  • dormono

7

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the imperfect tense?

Add the following endings to the infinitive, without the final -re:

-vo
-vi
-va
-vamo
-vate
-vano

8

Conjugate the verb amare in the imperfect tense.

  • amavo
  • amavi
  • amava
  • amavamo
  • amavate
  • amavano

9

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the imperfect indicative?

  • ricevevo
  • ricevevi
  • riceveva
  • ricevevamo
  • ricevevate
  • ricevevano

10

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the imperfect indicative?

  • dormivo
  • dormivi
  • dormiva
  • dormivamo
  • dormivate
  • dormivano

11

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the present perfect?

Take the present tense of the auxiliary verb (essere or avere) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating.

12

Conjugate the verb amare in the present perfect tense.

  • ho amato
  • hai amato
  • ha amato
  • abbiamo amato
  • avete amato
  • hanno amato

13

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the present perfect?

  • ho ricevuto
  • hai ricevuto
  • ha ricevuto
  • abbiamo ricevuto
  • avete ricevuto
  • hanno ricevuto

14

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the present perfect?

  • ho dormito
  • hai dormito
  • ha dormito
  • abbiamo dormito
  • avete dormito
  • hanno dormito

15

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the past perfect?

Take the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb (essere or avere) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating.

16

Conjugate the verb amare in the past perfect tense.

  • avevo amato
  • avevi amato
  • aveva amato
  • avevamo amato
  • avevate amato
  • avevano amato

17

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the past perfect?

  • avevo ricevuto
  • avevi ricevuto
  • aveva ricevuto
  • avevamo ricevuto
  • avevate ricevuto
  • avevano ricevuto

18

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the past perfect?

  • avevo dormito
  • avevi dormito
  • aveva dormito
  • avevamo dormito
  • avevate dormito
  • avevano dormito

19

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the simple past?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

-ai
-asti

-ammo
-aste
-arono

20

Conjugate the verb amare in the simple past tense.

  • amai
  • amasti
  • amò
  • amammo
  • amaste
  • amarono

21

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the simple past?

  • ricevetti
  • ricevesti
  • ricevette
  • ricevemmo
  • riceveste
  • ricevettero

22

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the simple past?

  • dormii
  • dormisti
  • dormì
  • dormimmo
  • dormiste
  • dormirono

23

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the remote pluperfect?

Take the simple past tense of the auxiliary verb (essere or avere) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating.

24

Conjugate the verb amare in the remote pluperfect.

  • ebbi amato
  • avesti amato
  • ebbe amato
  • avemmo amato
  • aveste amato
  • ebbero amato

25

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the remote pluperfect?

  • ebbi ricevuto
  • avesti ricevuto
  • ebbe ricevuto
  • avemmo ricevuto
  • aveste ricevuto
  • ebbero ricevuto

26

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the remote pluperfect?

  • ebbi dormito 
  • avesti dormito
  • ebbe dormito
  • avemmo dormito
  • aveste dormito
  • ebbero dormito

27

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the future?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

-erò
-erai
-erà
-eremo
-erete
-eranno

28

Conjugate the verb amare in the future.

  • amerò
  • amerai
  • amerà
  • ameremo
  • amerete
  • ameranno

29

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the future?

  • riceverò
  • riceverai
  • riceverà
  • riceveremo
  • riceverete
  • riceveranno

30

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the future?

  • dormirò
  • dormirai
  • dormirà
  • dormiremo
  • dormirete
  • dormiranno

31

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the future perfect?

Take the future of the auxiliary verb (essere or avere) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating.

32

Conjugate the verb amare in the future perfect.

  • avrò amato
  • avrai amato
  • avrà amato
  • avremo amato
  • avrete amato
  • avranno amato

33

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the future perfect?

  • avrò ricevuto
  • avrai ricevuto
  • avrà ricevuto
  • avremo ricevuto
  • avrete ricevuto
  • avranno ricevuto

34

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the future perfect?

  • avrò dormito
  • avrai dormito
  • avrà dormito
  • avremo dormito
  • avrete dormito
  • avranno dormito

35

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the present subjunctive?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

-i
-i
-i
-iamo
-iate
-ino

36

Conjugate the verb amare in the present subjunctive.

  • ami
  • ami
  • ami
  • amiamo
  • amiate
  • amino

37

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the present subjunctive?

  • riceva
  • riceva
  • riceva
  • riceviamo
  • riceviate
  • ricevano

38

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the present subjunctive?

  • dorma
  • dorma
  • dorma
  • dormiamo
  • dormiate
  • dormano

39

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the past subjunctive?

Take the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verb (essere or avere) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating.

40

Conjugate the verb amare in the past subjunctive.

  • abbia amato
  • abbia amato
  • abbia amato
  • abbiamo amato
  • abbiate amato
  • abbiano amato

41

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the past subjunctive?

  • abbia ricevuto
  • abbia ricevuto
  • abbia ricevuto
  • abbiamo ricevuto
  • abbiate ricevuto
  • abbiano ricevuto

42

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the past subjunctive?

  • abbia dormito
  • abbia dormito
  • abbia dormito
  • abbiamo dormito
  • abbiate dormito
  • abbiano dormito

43

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the imperfect subjunctive?

Add the following endings to the stem of the verb:

-assi
-assi
-asse
-assimo
-aste
-assero

44

Conjugate the verb amare in the imperfect subjunctive.

  • amassi
  • amassi
  • amasse
  • amassimo
  • amaste
  • amassero

45

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the imperfect subjunctive?

  • ricevessi
  • ricevessi
  • ricevesse
  • ricevessimo
  • riceveste
  • ricevessero

46

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the imperfect subjunctive?

  • dormissi
  • dormissi
  • dormisse
  • dormissimo
  • dormiste
  • dormissero

47

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the pluperfect subjunctive?

Take the imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb (essere or avere) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating.

48

Conjugate the verb amare in the pluperfect subjunctive.

  • avessi amato 
  • avessi amato
  • avesse amato
  • avessimo amato
  • aveste amato
  • avessero amato

49

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the pluperfect subjunctive?

  • avessi ricevuto
  • avessi ricevuto
  • avesse ricevuto
  • avessimo ricevuto
  • aveste ricevuto
  • avessero ricevuto

50

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the pluperfect subjunctive?

  • avessi dormito
  • avessi dormito
  • avesse dormito
  • avessimo dormito
  • aveste dormito
  • avessero dormito

51

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the present conditional?

Take the infinitive without its ending -are and add the following endings:

-erei
-eresti
-erebbe
-eremmo
-ereste
-erebbero

52

Conjugate the verb amare in the present conditional.

  • amerei
  • ameresti
  • amerebbe
  • ameremmo
  • amereste
  • amerebbero

53

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the present conditional?

  • riceverei
  • riceveresti
  • riceverebbe
  • riceveremmo
  • ricevereste
  • riceverebbero

54

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the present conditional?

  • dormierei
  • dormieresti
  • dormierebbe
  • dormieremmo
  • dormiereste
  • dormierebbero

55

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the past conditional?

Take the present conditional of the auxiliary verb (essere or avere) and add the past participle of the verb you are conjugating.

56

Conjugate the verb amare in the past conditional.

  • avrei amato
  • avresti amato
  • avrebbe amato
  • avremmo amato
  • avreste amato
  • avrebbero amato

57

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the past conditional?

  • avrei ricevuto
  • avresti ricevuto
  • avrebbe ricevuto
  • avremmo ricevuto
  • avreste ricevuto
  • avrebbero ricevuto

58

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the past conditional?

  • avrei dormito
  • avresti dormito
  • avrebbe dormito
  • avremmo dormito
  • avreste dormito
  • avrebbero dormito

59

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the imperative?

For the second-person singular and second-person plural, add the following endings to the stem of the verb: -a -ate

The first-person singular doesn't exist. The third-person singular and first and third-person plural are replaced by the corresponding conjugations of the present subjunctive.

60

Where do you place the subject pronouns in the imperative?

Unlike all the other tenses, the subject pronouns should follow verbs in the imperative. That said, recall that Italians commonly skip using the subject pronouns in all tenses.

61

Conjugate the verb amare in the imperative.

  • ama tu
  • ami lui/lei
  • amiamo noi
  • amate voi
  • amino loro

62

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the imperative?

  • ricevi
  • riceva
  • riceviamo
  • ricevete
  • ricevano

63

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the imperative?

  • dormi
  • dorma
  • dormiamo
  • dormite
  • dormano

64

How do you conjugate -ARE verbs in the present gerund?

Add the following ending to the stem of the verb: -ando

65

Conjugate the verb amare in the gerund.

amando

66

How do you conjugate -ERE verbs in the present gerund?

ricevendo

67

How do you conjugate -IRE verbs in the present gerund?

dormendo

68

How do you form the past participle of -ARE verbs?

Add the following ending to the stem of the verb: -ato.

Recall that past participles should change in gender and number depending on the subject.

69

Form the past participle of amare.

amato

70

How do you form the past participle of -ERE verbs?

ricevuto

71

How do you form the past participle of -IRE verbs?

dormito

72

How do you conjugate verbs in the negative imperative?

It's the same as the affirmative imperative, with the exception that the second-person singular form changes to the verb's infinitive.

73

Conjugate mangiare (to eat) in the negative imperative.

  • non mangiare tu
  • non mangi lui/lei
  • non mangiamo noi
  • non mangiate voi
  • non mangino loro

74

Conjugate partire (to leave) in the negative imperative.

  • non partire
  • non parta
  • non partiamo
  • non partite
  • non partano

75

What is the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs?

Transitive verbs are action verbs that have a direct object, whereas intransitive verbs don't have objects: "I eat cake" (transitive) vs. "I slept" (intransitive).

76

When do you choose avere as an auxiliary verb?

Avere is mostly used with transitive verbs. Example: Ho mangiato una mela. "I ate an apple."

77

When do you choose essere as an auxiliary verb?

Essere is mostly used with intransitive verbs. Example: Marco è appena arrivato. "Marco has just arrived."

78

What should you pay close attention to when using essere as an auxiliary verb in compound tenses?

When used with essere, the participle has to agree in gender and number with the subject. Example: Le ragazze sono appena arrivate. "The girls have just arrived."

79

Some verbs can use both essere and avere as their auxiliary verbs in compound tenses, depending on if they are used transitively or intransitively. How does this work?

The verb should use the auxiliary verb avere when used transitively: Il professore ha cominciato la lezione. "The professor has started the lesson."

The verb should use the auxiliary verb essere when used intransitively: Il film è cominiciato. "The movie has started."

80

What are reflexive verbs?

They are verbs whose subject acts on itself. Example: the reflexive form of the verb vestire, "to dress," is vestirsi. This literally translates to "to dress oneself."

81

How is the infinitive tense of a reflexive verb formed?

Drop the -e from the infinitive and add the pronoun si. Examples: svegliarsi (to wake up), pettinarsi (to comb oneself), guardarsi (to look at oneself). 

82

How do you conjugate reflexive verbs?

They are conjugated normally, only you must remember to add the appropriate reflexive pronoun to the conjugation. The six reflexive pronouns are: mi, ti, si, ci, vi, si.

83

How do you conjugate lavare (to wash) in the reflexive form of the present indicative?

Lavarsi:

  • io mi lavo
  • tu ti lavi
  • lui/lei si lava
  • noi ci laviamo
  • voi vi lavate
  • loro si lavano

84

Can all verbs be conjugated in the passive form?

No. Only transitive verbs have the passive voice.

85

How does the passive voice work?

The object of the active form becomes the subject of the passive one. In Italian, the passive voice is created by the verb essere plus the past participle of the main verb. Essere should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject.

Example: Io pago l'affitto - "I pay the rent" (active form) vs. l'affitto è pagato da me - "The rent is paid by me" (passive form)

86

Is essere the only auxiliary verb used for the passive voice?

No, with simple tenses (but not compound tenses) the verb essere can be replaced with the verb venire. The passive voice is the only time venire can be used as an auxiliary verb.

87

Conjugate the verb amare in the passive form of the present indicative.

  • io sono amato/a
  • tu sei amato/a
  • lui/lei è amato/a
  • noi siamo amati/e
  • voi siete amati/e
  • loro sono amati/e

88

Conjugate the verb portare (to bring, to take) in the passive form of the past subjunctive.

  • io sia stato portato/a
  • tu sia stato portato/a
  • lui/lei sia stato portato/a
  • noi siamo stati portati/e
  • voi siate stati portati/e
  • loro siano stati portati/e

89

Conjugate the verb iscrivere (to enroll) in the passive form of the simple past, using venire as the auxiliary verb.

  • io venni iscritto/a
  • tu venisti iscritto/a
  • lui/lei venne iscritto/a
  • noi venimmo iscritti/e
  • voi veniste iscritti/e
  • loro vennero iscritti/e

90

In which circumstances is the subjunctive required?

  • to express hopes and desires 
  • to express fears, doubts, and disappointment
  • to express opinions

91

What are some common verbs expressing hope and desire that need to be followed by the subjunctive?

  • sperare (to hope)
  • volere (to want)
  • desiderare (to wish)

92

What are some common verbs expressing fear, doubt, and disappointment that need to be followed by the subjunctive?

  • temere (to be afraid)
  • dispiacere (to be sorry)*
  • dubitare (to doubt)
  • non essere sicuro/a/i/e (to not be sure)

*the verb dispiacere is used like the verb piacere

93

What are some common phrases and verbs expressing opinions that need to be followed by the subjunctive?

  • è bene/è meglio (it's better/it would be better)
  • bisogna/è necessario (it is necessary)
  • pensare (to think)
  • credere (to believe)
  • immaginare (to imagine)

94

Translate to Italian: I think that the professor is late. 

Penso che il professore sia in ritardo.

Note that the subjunctive is required here, whereas in English only the indicative is needed.

95

When is the conditional used?

The conditional is used to describe events that aren't guaranteed to happen, and that are dependent on certain conditions. In English, its equivalent is frequently the form "would + verb."

Example: Vorrei andare con te. "I would like to go with you."

96

How can you make a request in Italian?

There are three ways to request something. The first is with the imperative. However, Italians often use the present indicative to make requests in informal settings. To request something politely, especially when addressing strangers, you should use the conditional.

Example: Mi potresti passare l'acqua per favore? - "Could you please pass me the water?"

97

Can the subjunctive and the conditional be used together?

Yes, in the hypothetical sense, to express an improbable or impossible condition: se + past subjunctive + present conditional (improbability in the present)

Example: Se avessi tempo, verrei. "If I had time, I would come."

se + pluperfect subjunctive + past conditional (impossibility in the past)

Example: Se avessi avuto tempo, sarei venuto. "If I had had time, I would have come."

98

What are impersonal verbs?

Impersonal verbs are verbs with no determinate subject. They can only be conjugated in the third person in all moods except for the imperative, which does not exist for impersonal verbs.

Example: the verb piovere, "to rain", can only be conjugated in the third-person singular, piove - "it's raining."

99

What are some common impersonal verbs used to talk about weather?

Some verbs used to talk about weather:

  • piovere - "to rain"
  • nevicare - "to snow"
  • piovigginare - "to drizzle"
  • diluviare - "to pour"
  • tuonare - "to thunder"
  • rannuvolarsi - "to cloud over"
  • annebbiarsi - "to grow foggy"
  • grandinare - "to hail"
  • albeggiare - "to dawn"

100

Many impersonal verbs are used to tell facts and express opinions, feelings, and needs. List some of them.

  • accadere - "to happen/to occur"
  • succedere - "to happen/to occur"
  • avvenire - "to happen/to occur"
  • bastare - "to be enough"
  • bisognare - "to need/to be necessary"
  • parere - "to seem/to appear"
  • sembrare - "to seem/to appear"
  • importare - "to interest/to matter"

101

Translate to Italian: We happen to make mistakes.

Succede di sbagliare.

Note that this literally translates to "It happens to make mistakes."

102

Translate to Italian: You need to study more.

Bisogna che studi di più.

Note that this literally translates to "It is needed that you study more."

103

Translate to Italian: He seemed happy.

Sembrava che fosse felice.

Note that this literally translates to "It seemed that he was happy."

104

Apart from verbs about weather and some verbs used to tell facts and opinions, are there other verbs that can be used impersonally?

Yes! All verbs can be used impersonally when the subject is not known, by using si as follows: si + verb in the third-person singular form.

In English si can be translated as "one/people/they/we."

Si dice che domani pioverà - "They say that tomorrow it's going to rain"

Non si accettano gli assegni - "We don't take checks"

Si vede che sei felice - "One can see that you are happy"

105

How do you use the verb piacere?

The verb piacere works in a completely different way from its English equivalent "to like." Its construction is similar to the English "to be pleasing." Piacere always needs an indirect object (the person who is pleased). The subject is always the person or the object that pleases.

Agli italiani piace il caffé - "Italians like coffee." (Note that il caffé is the subject of the sentence, so piacere is conjugated in the third-person singular.)

106

How do you use the verb mancare?

The verb mancare is similar to the verb piacere. It differs from its English equivalent "to miss." The person or object that is missed becomes the subject in Italian. Mancare always needs an indirect object (the person who is missing).

A Maria mancano i suoi nipoti - "Maria misses her grandsons." (Note that i nipoti, "the grandsons," is the subject of the sentence, so mancare is conjugated in the third-person plural.)

107

How should you address a stranger in Italian?

Use the third-person singular form to address someone you don't know. When using subject pronouns, Lei is the default pronoun when addressing either a man or a woman. Note that for a group of people, you would simply use the second-person plural.