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Flashcards in Jaimie Childress Deck (53):

1. What is/does OPA mean?

a. oropharyngeal airways
b. used to keep upper airway patent when at risk of obstruction by the tongue or secretions
c. used for patients whose level of consciousness is altered


2. What is/does NPA mean?

a. Nasopharyngeal airway
b. Used to keep upper airway patent
c. Used for patients who are alert


3. What is/does King LT-D or Combitube mean?

a. supraglottic airways
b. tools designed to minimize airway trauma while maximizing ventilation
c. used for alert patients


4. Some common devices used as an artificial airway which are inserted to maintain airway obstrucation?

a. Oropharyngeal airway
b. Nasopharyngeal airway
c. Endotracheal tubes
d. Tracheostomy tubes


1. Cervical alignment for athlete with spinal injury?

a. Cervical spine immobilized in neutral position
b. Neck motion controlled in preparation for transport


6. It is important to check what when a spinal injury occurs

a. Level of consciousness
b. Neural screening
c. Circulation


7. When should a face mask be removed?

a. Only for cardiopulmonary resuscitation


8. Certified athletic trainers and other initial responders should have the appropriate removal
equipment available at all times and should be familiar with the use of this equipment before an
emergency occurs



9. Guidelines for removal of helmet

a. If after a reasonable period of time, the face mask cannot be removed to gain access to the airway
b. If the design of the helmet and chin strap is such that even after removal of the face mask, the airway cannot be controlled or ventilation provided
c. If the helmet and chin straps do not hold the head securely such that immobilization of the helmet does not also immobilize the head
d. If the helmet prevents immobilization for transport in an appropriate position


10. Concerns regarding the removal of equipment

a. The ability to maintain neutral spinal alignment
b. The ability to secure rigid fixation of the athlete to the board
c. A guarantee of access to the airway and to the chest for resuscitation efforts


11. What are the steps to removing shoulder pads with a spinal injury

a. Cut jersey and all other shirts from neck to waist and from the midline to the end of each arm sleeve
b. Cut all straps used to secure the shoulder pads to the torso. Attempts to unbuckle or unsnap any fasteners should be avoided due to the potential for unnecessary movement.
c. Cut all straps used to secure the shoulder pads to the arms
d. Cut laces or straps over the sternum. This lace or strap system allows for quick and efficient access to the anterior portion of the chest.
e. A primary responder maintains cervical stabilization in a cephalad direction by placing his or her forearms on the athlete’s chest while holding the maxilla and occiput.


12. Problems when using bag valve

a. Improper positioning
b. Improper mask holding
c. Failure to use nasal or oral airway


13. Should a different bag size be used when using a BVM on adult vs child?

a. Yes (child smaller)


14. What is the appropriate ventilate rate?

a. Adult - 10-12/minute
b. Child - 12-20/minute
c. Infant - 20-30/minute


15. When should you reassess patient while performing reassessment ?

a. Every 5 min or sooner


16. What is a pulse oximetery?

a. A procedure used to measure the oxygen level in the blood


17. How is a pulse oximeter used?

a. It is known as a noninvasive, painless, general indicator of oxygen delivery to the peripheral tissues such as the finger, earlobe, or nose


18. How do you interpret the results of a pulse oximeter?

a. These figures are dependent on a person’s health
b. Figures are compared to norms
c. blood oxygen saturation level (SpO2) should be around 94% to 99%


19. The most accurate way to measure body temperature?



20. What is necessary when using a rectal probe?

a. A lubricant of some sort


21. What is the normal rectal temperature of a child?

a. between 97° and 100° F


22. How far should the thermometer be inserted into the rectum?

1/2 inch


23. What types of thermometers can be used to take rectal temperature?

a. Electrical
b. Glass
c. Mercury (more so in the past)


24. How long should you leave the thermometer in the rectum?

a. Until it beeps
b. 3 minutes


25. What is sudden cardiac arrest?

Issue in which the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating


26. Is sudden cardiac death the same as a heart attack?



27. Why does sudden cardiac arrest occur?

a. blood flow to a portion of the heart is blocked
b. abnormality in your heart rhythm (arrhythmia)


28. What is an arrhythmia?

a. Heart rhythm problems caused when electrical impulses that coordinate your heartbeats don't work properly (makes your heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly)


29. What are the types of fracture classifications of the lumbar and thoracic spine?

a. Compression fracture
b. Axial burst fracture
c. Flex/distraction fracture
d. Transverse process fracture
e. Fracture dislocation


30. A rib fracture is considered to be a thoracic injury?



31. What is spondylosis?

a. Narrowing of the space needed by the spinal cord and the nerve roots that originate at the spinal cord and pass through the spine to the rest of your body. The spinal cord or nerve roots can become pinched


32. What is spondylolithisteis?

a. One vertebra slides forward over the bone below it
b. Can lead to spinal cord or nerve roots being squeezed


33. Sickle cell is not common in what race?

a. African American


34. What is sickle cell trait?

a. Red blood cells form an abnormal crescent shape that is rigid, causing the red blood cells to be damaged. The cells aren't flexible enough to get through close-fitting spaces, and this can increase the risk of forming blood clots.


35. What is exertional sickling?

a. Occurs in athletes with sickle cell
b. The red blood cells change shape which causes a buildup of red blood cells in small blood vessels which causes blood flow to decrease.


36. What is rhabdomyolysis?

a. A condition in which skeletal muscle is broken down, releasing muscle enzymes and electrolytes from inside the muscle cells


37. What are the signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis?

a. Severe muscle aching throughout the entire body
b. Muscle weakness
c. Dark or cola-colored urine
d. Nausea/vomiting


38. What is the cause of rhabdomyolysis?

a. High dose of statins
b. Use of alcohol or illegal drugs
c. Extreme muscle strain
d. Long lasting muscle compression
e. Crush injury


39. How do you treat rhabdomyolysis?

a. Intravenous fluids to help kidneys
b. Management of electrolyte abnormalities
c. Surgical procedure if needed (if compartment syndrome arises)


40. What causes internal hemorrhage?

a. Blunt trauma (usually at high speed)
b. Penetrating drama


41. What organs involve internal hemorrhage?

a. Head trauma
b. Bleeding around lungs
c. Bleeding around heart
d. Tears in large blood vessels near center of body (aorta)
e. Trauma to abdomen such as spleen or liver


42. What are some signs and symptoms of internal hemorrhaging?

a. Abdominal pain or swelling
b. Light headed, dizzy, fainting
c. Deep purple skin color
d. Swelling or tightness in legs
e. Headache or loss of consciousness


43. What are the treatment parameters for internal hemorrhaging?

a. Intravenous fluids
b. Blood transfusion
c. Surgery if needed (Exploratory laparotomy, Thoracotomy, Fasciotomy)


44. What is an epileptic seizure?

a. Transient occurrence of signs and symptoms due to abnormal excessive neural cavity in the brain


45. What is a non-epileptic seizure?

a. Uncontrollable event that does not involve abnormal rhythmic discharges of cortical neurons
b. Caused by either physiological or psychological conditions


46. What are some signs and symptoms of non-epileptic seizures?

a. Impaired or jerky movements
b. Disturbances in coordination
c. Temporary blindness
d. Tunnel vision
e. Loss of the sense of smell or touch
f. Tingling sensation to the skin


47. What are some signs and symptoms of an epileptic seizure?

a. Temporary confusion
b. A staring spell
c. Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs
d. Loss of consciousness or awareness


48. What are the different types of shock?

a. Septic
b. Anaphylactic
c. Cardiogenic
d. Neurogenic
e. hypovolemic


49. What is septic shock?

a. Caused from bacteria
b. Severe infection and sepsis
c. Blood pressure drops


50. What is anaphylactic shock?

a. Serious, sometimes life-threatening allergic reaction to an antigen to which the body has become hypersensitive


51. What is cardiogenic shock?

a. Shock that occurs from the heart not being able to pump enough blood to meet your body's needs, which often leads to a severe heart attack


52. What is neurogenic shock?

a. From spinal cord injury
b. Hypotension and bradycardia


53. What is hypovolemic shock?

a. From blood or fluid loss
b. Heart is unable to pump enough blood for enough body