When Does Cardiovascular Disease Start?
Often in utero. If the mother has a cholesterol level of >5 (which is 75% of women), artherosclerosis will begin in utero.
If not, artherosclerosis will begin in childhood.
Mortality Rate for CVD
Has been going down over the last 50 years.
In 1950 if you had a heart attack your 30-day mortality was 30% and your 1-year mortality was a further 30%.
Now, it is like 3% and 3%, respectively.
Incidence and Prevalence of CVD
Incidence is going down, but prevalence is going up.
Vascular Disease Prevention - Categories
Primordial - before you get risk factors
Primary - after you have risk factors, but not an event
Secondary - after a vascular disease event
Oxidative Stress and CVD
The more susceptible you are to oxidative stress, the more likely you will acquire cardiovascular disease.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause inflammation. If you run out of the ability to buffer the ROS in your body, you will get inflammation and vascular damage.
CVD Risk Factors
These 4 are responsible for 75-80% of CVD.
Relationship Between Risk Factors and CVD
It is a direct relationship.
Ideal Systolic Blood Pressure
Less than 120 mmHg is optimal.
121-129 is normal.
130-139 is high-normal.
Emerging Risk Factors for CVD
Susceptibility to CVD
Gender (estrogen is protective)
Exercise and CVD
Greatly reduces the risk of CVD.