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Locomotor > Joint Structure & Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Joint Structure & Function Deck (57):
1

What is a joint?

point of contact between two or more bones, cartilage and bones, or teeth and bones.

2

What is the study of joints

Arthrology

3

What are the 3 main types of joint?

fibrous
cartilaginous
synovial

4

What joints are solid and which are cavitated? (have a cavity)

Solid is fibrous and cartilaginous
Cavitated is synovial

5

What is an example of a fibrous joint?

Sutures of the skull

6

What is an example of a cartilaginous joint?

Pubic symphysis
Epiphyseal growth plate
Intervertebral disc

7

What are the bones held together by in a fibrous joint?

Articulating bones held together by fibrous connective tissue

8

How much movement occurs at a fibrous joint?

Little or no movement

9

What happens if the fibrous joint suture ossifies?

Synostosis - an ossified suture, immovable

10

What is a syndesmosis?

Syndesmosis - sheet of fibrous tissue (interosseous membrane) between bones

11

Where is a syndesmosis found?

Between radius and ulna or between tibia and fibula

12

What movement does the syndesmosis allow?

radius and ulna - allows pronation and supination

13

What holds your teeth in the mandible/maxilla socket?

Gomphosis - cone-shaped peg fits into a socket. e.g. teeth

14

How much do the cartilaginous joints move?

Little or no movement

15

What makes up a cartilaginous joint/how are bones attached?

Fibrocartilage (tough) or hyaline cartilage (smooth)

16

What is symphysis?

Cartilage joint in fibrous cartilage fibrocartilage

17

Where is symphysis found? and why?

Where we need more movement - pubic symphysis, IV discs

18

What is the syndchrondosis? Examples

Cartilage joint - hyaline cartilage, only present in childhood, at epiphyseal growth plate and costochondral joints

19

What are the costochondral joints?

Between ribs and sternum, syndchrondosis, hyaline cartilage, become more brittle with age

20

What are the majority of the joints in the body?

Synovial

21

How much can the synovial joints move?

Freely moveable but ranges between different joints

22

What is the fibrous capsule?

Holds synovial fluid in place, goes around the bone and joint

23

What lines the fibrous capsule?

Synovial membrane which makes the synovial fluid, made up of endothelial cells made up of GAG making fluid gloopy

24

Where is there loose connective tissue in a synovial joint?

Between the fibrous capsule and the synovial membrane, filled with blood vessels

25

What is the role of the articular cartilage?

Caps the ends of the bones forming the joint and gives smooth slippery surface to work with synovial fluid giving friction-less free movement

26

What is the articulating cartilage made up of?

Hyaline cartilage

27

What is an arthogram?

Iodine /contrast dye injected to see joint space and bursae

28

What is the ECM of hyaline cartilage made up of?

Deeper layer merges via a calcified layer with the subchondral bone.

80% water
Collagen type II
Proteoglycans

29

What do the properties of hyaline cartilage depend upon?

ECM composition

30

What is the function/properties of articulating cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage:
Smooth, slippery and very low coefficient of friction
Elastic, resilient structure that acts as a shock absorber to protect underlying bone

31

Is the hyaline cartilage calcified?

No apart from very deep layer which merges with the subchondral bone?

32

Why do joints appear as a gap on x-rays?

Black space is articular cartilage which is not seen on an x-ray

33

What else do some most synovial joints contain?

accessory ligaments and articular discs (menisci).

34

What do ligaments do?

Ligaments connect bone to bone
Help to stabilise and hold joint together
Joined to outer fibrous capsule

35

What do articular discs do?

Articular discs modify shape of joint surfaces
Help maintain stability of joint, and direct flow of synovial fluid to areas of greatest friction.

36

Where is the articular capsule?

surrounds joint. Encloses synovial cavity, uniting articulating bones.

37

What are the two layers of the articular capsule? What do they do?

Outer fibrous capsule (may contain ligaments).
Inner synovial membrane (secretes lubricating and joint nourishing synovial fluid).

38

What is the cause of osteoarthirits?

Loss of articulating cartilage

39

What are the 6 types of synovial joints?

Planar, Hinge, Pivot, Ellipsoidal, Saddle, Ball & Socket

40

What movements can planar joints do?

Gliding movements (side to side and back and forth)

41

Examples of planar joints

Intercarpals and intertarsals

42

How does a hinge joint form?

Convex surface of one bone fitting into concave surface of another bone

43

What movements are in a hinge joint?

Flexion and extension, single plane

44

Examples of a hinge joint?

elbow, knee, Interpharyngeal

45

Examples of a pivot joint

Proximal radio-ulnar joint (annular ligament)
Atlas rotating around the axis

46

How does a pivot joint form

Round/pointed surface of one bone fitting into a ring formed by another bone or ligament

47

What movement occurs at pivot joints?

Rotational, pronation and supination in proximal radio-ulnar

48

What is another name for the ellipsoidal joint?

Condyloid joint

49

How does a condyloid form?

condyle of one bone fits into cavity of another bone

50

What are the movements of the condyloid joint?

Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction

51

What is an example of a condyloid joint?

Carpals and radius

52

Which joints are saddle joint?

Carpal-metacarpal of the thumb
(carpal is trapezium)

53

How does a saddle joint form?

Saddle shaped bone and other is rider

54

What movements can a saddle joint do?

Flexion-extension
Abduction-adduction
Circumduction

55

How does a ball and socket joint form?

Ball shaped surface of one bone fits into cup like depression of the other

56

What movements are in the ball and socket joint?

flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction

57

What are some examples of a ball and socket joint?

Shoulder and hip