Joints & Movements of the Vertebral Column #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Joints & Movements of the Vertebral Column #1 Deck (38):

List the 4 types of vert column motility

1. Flexion
2. Rotation
3. Lat. flexion
4. Extension


Which vert column region has less flexion + extension?



List the degrees of lat. flexion of each vert column region

- lumbar: 20
- thoracic: 20
- cervical: 35


How does the structure lumbar region of vert column affect its movement?

- synovial joints limit rotation due to curved AF


How does the structure of thoracic region of vert column affect its movement?

get more rotation due to vert + flat art


How does the structure of cervical region of vert column affect its movement?

pivot joint between C1 + C2 - get more rotation


What is forward flexion?

bending forwards flexes lumbar spine


What is forward flexion + axial rotation?

bending forwards + upper body rotated at same time


What is lat. flexion?

lat. bending prod asymm bending common in manual handling


Which pos of spine is the most unstable and why?

- lat. flexion
- ass with disc prolapse + back pain


What determines mobility of vert column?

- movements poss between art. joints on laminae
- shape + orientation of joints dictates direction + range of movements poss between adj vert


What type of joint is the facet joint?

- synovial
- has 2 art surfaces covered with hyaline cartilage enclosed by synovial mem + joint capsule


What extra art do thoracic vert have?

for ribs


What does intervert disc allow?

synovial joints to move


What is the problem if vert were to just rest on top of each other?

give adequate joint for weight bearing + allow gliding but flatness of vert would not allow rocking movements ass with flexion + extension


What is the solution to the issue of having vert resting on top of each other?

- interpose bodies with layer of strong but deformable tissue with 3 major requirements:
1. strong enough to sustain weight i.e. transfer load from 1 vert to next without collapsing
2. deformable to accomm rocking movements of vert without compromising strength
3. strong enough not to be injured during movement


Why can't the surface of vert be flat?

no movement


Why can't surface of vert be curved?

forces would only be going through 1 point due to limited contact


What are the 3 components of intevert disc?

1. Nucleus Pulposis
2. Annulus Fibrosis
3. Vert End Plate


What does the structure of intervert disc allow?

- all forces transmitted from 1 vert to other in neutral pos
- can deform + large SA means can transmit forces


What is function of vert end plate?

- sep bone from rest of disc + covers area where nucleus is
- form perm barrier between nucleus + bone through which water + nutrients may pass
- prevent nucleus bulging into vert body


Why is there movement of fluid from disc to bone?

provide nutrients for disc + movement of materials between the 2


What type of joints are intervert joints?

secondary cartilaginous


What are the collagen fibres in the annulus like + why?

- have degrees/angles of rotation
- rings not always complete
- allows slow deformation so invert discs act as shock absorber when forces transmitted between vert so don't feel it during movement


What happens when forced put on disc?

- nucleus start to deform + flatten slowly
- bulging of annulus
- vert end plate stops it pushing up into bone


What is the env of the disc like at rest?

equ between amount of fluid in the system + forces acting on it


What happens to synovial joints during extension?

closer together and so more stable


What happens to synovial joints during flexion

further apart + least stable pos as not so packed together


Describe what a grade 2 intervert disc is like

- nucleus appears fibrous + contains some brown pigment
- not degen


Describe what a grade 3 intervert disc is like

- mod degen changes
- annulus bulging into nucleus
- end plate damage


Describe what a grade 4 intervert disc is like

- severe degen
- disruption to both end plates
- disc red in height
- pigmented
- bits of intervert disc beginning to bulge into vert body


What is consequence of loss of height of intevert disc?

- loss of height in vert foramen puts pressure on peripheral nerves as they're leaving
- leads to sciatica, + degen in neck + lumbar region


What is the consistency of the nucleus pulposis + why?

- toothpaste
- 70% water in adult


What is the histology of nucleus pulposis?

few cartilage cells + type 1 collagen fibres


What does the fluid nature of the pulp allow?

- can be deformed but vol can't be compressed
- when weight applied, red in height + exerts P on annulus


What is structure of annulus fibrosis?

- highly ordered lamellae (10-20) of collagen type I
- thicker ant. + more tightly packed post.


Why is structure of annulus important?

lattice construction gives disc its strength + ability to resist deformation from nuclear P + load from vert body


What is structure of the end plates and where are they found?

- hyaline cartilage
- surround nucleus pulposis