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Flashcards in Joints I Deck (31):
1

Joint/Articulation

site of contact between bones or between cartilage and bone (bones/joints develop from the same embryonic tissue)

2

Surfaces of the bone covering the joint is ...

articular surfaces, the covering articular cartilage

3

Role of Joints

to allow movement amongst rigid bones, however not all joints allow movement - e.g. sutures in the skull and temporary joints

4

Temporary Joint - 4 points

designed to allow growth of bone, found in immature bones with bony epiphysis and a bony diaphysis - epiphyseal plate/growth plate, not designed for movement, eventually obliterated by ossification of growth plate

5

2 categories for classifying joints

Function and Structure

6

Function category - 3 types based on the degree of movement

synarthroses, amphiarthroses and diarthroses

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synarthroses

immoveable

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amphiarthroses

slightly moveable

9

diarthroses

freely moveable

10

Structure category - 3 types based on presence/absence of a joint cavity & type of connective tissue

Fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial

11

Define a fibrous joint

bones connected by fibrous tissue with no joint cavity

12

Define a cartilaginous joint

bones connected by cartilage with no joint cavity

13

Define a synovial joint

bones not connected, form joints and have a joint cavity

14

3 types of fibrous joint

Sutures, Syndesmoses and Gomphoses

15

Describe sutures - 6 points

connected by fibrous tissue, found only in the skull, bones of the skull vault bound tightly with fibrous tissue = sutural ligaments - this immobility is important to give protection to brain/special sense organs, found where the margins of the bone meet, sutural surfaces = designed to interlock

16

serrated

saw-like (sutures)

17

denticulate

tooth-like (sutures)

18

Describe sutures in a foetus/young child - 3 points

bones of cranial vault have not yet met so there are gaps covered only by fibrous tissue = fontanelles - allow for further growth in size of the brain, when growth is complete the sutural ligament is replaced with bone (late 20s) = synostosis

19

Describe Syndesmoses - 3 points

held together by fibrous connective tissue but not as firmly as sutures, only 1 true syndesmoses - between the distal ends of the tibia & fibula = inferior tibiofibular joint, permits some movement but no true movement, superior tibiofibular joint and the radius & ulna joints are joined by sheet of fibrous tissue (interosseous membrane) which have much larger fibres and so aren't true syndesmoses

20

Describe Gomphosis - 2 points

specialised fibrous joints between teeth and supporting bones of the jaw, tooth root anchored to bony walls of socket by thin fibrous membrane = periodontal membrane

21

3 types of cartilaginous joints

Primary cartilaginous joints, secondary cartilaginous joints and synovial

22

Describe primary cartilaginous joints (synchondroses) - 2 points

held together by a plate of hyaline cartilage, mostly temporary joints - allows for growth (e.g. between epiphyses and diaphyses of long bone) and for growth of skull base until about 25 yrs

23

Example of a primary cartilaginous joint

Between ribs and costal cartilages - cost-chondral joints

24

Describe secondary cartilaginous joints (symphyses) - 5 points

have articular surfaces and bones are covered by hyaline cartilage, bones held together by plate of fibro-cartilage, allows slight movement, not all are permanent joints, the 2 halves of the mandible are joined by symphyseal joint in midline - united after 1st year of life

25

Examples of secondary cartilaginous joints

Inter-vertebral discs between vertebral bodies - permanent joint, pubic symphysis forms between 2 pubic bones - permanent joint, joint between manubrium and body of sternum = manubrio-sternum joint - obliterated by bone later in life

26

Describe synovial joint - 4 points

form the majority of joints in the body, the articular joint capsule is attached around the articular margins and between the articulating bones, bony surfaces covered by articular hyaline cartilage, joint cavity and joint capsule

27

Joint cavity in synovial joint

v small space and separates articulating bone

28

Joint capsule in synovial joint

double-layered, outer = strong & fibrous capsule, inner = synovial membrane

29

Describe the fibres of the fibrous capsule found in a synovial joint - 4 points

firmly joined to periosteum by ligaments holding the bone together, ligaments can be intrinsic (capsular) extrinsic and distinctly separated from the joint capsule (extracapsular), some joints become strengthened internally by having intracapsular ligaments located within the synovial cavity (e.g. knee joint which has the cruciate ligaments) - also has 2 articular discs = medial & lateral menisci inside the joint cavity

30

Examples of Intra-articular surfaces in synovial joints

e.g. articular discs, tendons & ligaments, all additional features to some synovial joints but not common to all

31

Smooth synovial membrane in synovial joints - 5 points

found within joint capsule, lines entire joint cavity, doesn't cover surfaces of articular cartilage, often thrown into folds which project into joint cavity, produces a viscous fluid = synovial fluid which lubricates joint surfaces