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Flashcards in Jovian Planet Systems Deck (53):
1

Which of the following is not a general characteristic of the four jovian planets in our solar system?

They are composed mainly of hydrogen, helium, and hydrogen compounds.
They are much more massive then any of the terrestrial planets.
They lack solid surfaces.
They are higher in average density than are the terrestrial planets.

They are higher in average density than are the terrestrial planets.

2

Which of the following best describes the internal layering of Jupiter, from the center outward?

Core of rock, metal, and hydrogen compounds; thick layer of metallic hydrogen; layer of liquid hydrogen; layer of gaseous hydrogen; cloud layer.
Core of rock and metal; mantle of lower density rock; upper layer of gaseous hydrogen; cloud layer.
Liquid core of hydrogen compounds; liquid hydrogen layer; metallic hydrogen layer; gaseous hydrogen layer; cloud layer.
Solid rock core; layer of solid metallic hydrogen; layer of pure liquid hydrogen; cloud layer.

Core of rock, metal, and hydrogen compounds; thick layer of metallic hydrogen; layer of liquid hydrogen; layer of gaseous hydrogen; cloud layer.

3

Which of the following statements comparing the jovian interiors is not thought to be true?

They all have cores that contain at least some rock and metal.
Deep inside them, they all have pressures far higher than that found on the bottom of the ocean on Earth.
They all have the same exact set of internal layers, those these layers differ in size.
They all have cores of roughly the same mass.

They all have the same exact set of internal layers, those these layers differ in size.

4

Overall, Jupiter's composition is most like that of ______.

Earth
the Sun
an asteroid
a comet

the Sun

5

Jupiter's colors come in part from its three layers of clouds. Which of the following is not the primary constituent of one of Jupiter's cloud layers?

clouds of water
clouds of ammonia
clouds of sulfuric acid
clouds of ammonium hydrosulfide

clouds of sulfuric acid

6

What is the Great Red Spot?

a place where reddish particles from Io impact Jupiter's surface
a region on Jupiter where the temperature is so high that the gas glows with red visible light
a long-lived, high-pressure storm on Jupiter
a hurricane that comes and goes on Jupiter

a long-lived, high-pressure storm on Jupiter

7

What atmospheric constituent is responsible for the blue color of Uranus and Neptune?

water
hydrogen
ammonia
methane

methane

8

How does the strength of Jupiter's magnetic field compare to that of Earth's magnetic field?

Jupiter's magnetic field is much weaker than Earth's.
Jupiter's magnetic field is about twice as strong as Earth's.
Jupiter's magnetic field is about 20,000 times as strong as Earth's.
Jupiter's magnetic field strength is about the same as Earth's.

Jupiter's magnetic field is about 20,000 times as strong as Earth's.

9

Which statement about Io is true?

It is the most volcanically active body in our solar system.
It is the only moon in the solar system with a thick atmosphere.
It is thought to have a deep, subsurface ocean of liquid water.
It is the largest moon in the solar system.

It is the most volcanically active body in our solar system.

10

Which moon has a thick atmosphere made mostly of nitrogen?

Titan
Triton
Europa
Ganymede

Titan

11

Which moon is considered likely to have a deep, subsurface ocean of liquid water?

Io
Europa
Miranda
Triton

Europa

12

Which large jovian moon is thought to have been captured into its present orbit?

Callisto
Io
Titan
Triton

Triton

13

Suppose you could float in space just a few meters above Saturn's rings. What would you see as you looked down on the rings?

dozens of large "moonlets" made of metal and rock, each a few kilometers across
a solid, shiny surface, looking much like a piece of a DVD but a lot bigger
countless icy particles, ranging in size from dust grains to large boulders
nothing - up close, the rings would be so completely invisible that you'd have no way to know they are there. They can be seen only from a distance.

countless icy particles, ranging in size from dust grains to large boulders

14

Which statement about planetary rings is not true?

Individual ring particles orbit their planet in accord with Kepler's laws, so that particles closer in orbit faster than particles farther out.
Rings are always located closer to a planet's surface than any large moons.
Saturn's rings formed along with its moons 4.6 billion years ago.
All four jovian planets have rings.

Saturn's rings formed along with its moons 4.6 billion years ago.

15

Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian planets?

Jupiter and Saturn have compositions that are fairly different from the compositions of Uranus and Neptune.
Jupiter is made mostly of hydrogen and helium, while the other three jovian planets are made mostly of hydrogen compounds.
Jupiter is made mostly of hydrogen, Saturn is made mostly of helium, Uranus is made mostly of hydrogen compounds, and Neptune is made mostly of rock.
All four planets have essentially the same composition.

Jupiter and Saturn have compositions that are fairly different from the compositions of Uranus and Neptune.

16

Which of the following statements best describes the pattern of jovian planet densities?

There is no clear trend in the densities.
Jupiter is the densest, and the densities of the other planets increase in order of distance from the Sun.
Jupiter is the densest, and the densities of the other planets decrease in order of distance from the Sun.
The more massive the planet, the lower the density.
The more massive the planet, the higher the density.

There is no clear trend in the densities.

17

Which of the following statements best explains why the densities of Uranus and Neptune are higher than those of Jupiter and Saturn?

Their interiors are more compressed due to stronger gravity.
They have a higher proportion of hydrogen compounds and rock.
They have higher masses.
They have stronger magnetic fields.
They are at greater distances from the Sun.

They have a higher proportion of hydrogen compounds and rock.

18

Which of the following best explains why Jupiter’s density is higher than Saturn's?

Jupiter is closer to the Sun than Saturn.
Jupiter has a stronger magnetic field than Saturn.
Jupiter has a higher proportion of hydrogen compounds and rock than Saturn.
Jupiter is more massive than Saturn.

Jupiter is more massive than Saturn.

19

Based on the leading scientific theory of solar system formation, which of the following statements best explains why Uranus and Neptune have a significantly different composition and higher density than Jupiter and Saturn?

Jupiter and Saturn captured more gas from the solar nebula than Uranus and Neptune.
Jupiter and Saturn formed closer to the Sun, where there was more hydrogen and helium gas and less hydrogen compounds and rock.
The lower temperatures at the locations of Uranus and Neptune allowed more material to condense into solid form into solid form.
The lower masses of Uranus and Neptune allowed more of their hydrogen and helium gas to escape into space.

Jupiter and Saturn captured more gas from the solar nebula than Uranus and Neptune.

20

Sort each of the planetary properties below based on whether they apply to some, all, or none of the four jovian planets in our solar system.

Jupiter and Saturn only :

composed mostly of hydrogen and helium
Interior is mostly liquid or metallic hydrogen
blue color because of methane
composed mostly hydrogen compounds
magnetic field stronger than earths
orbited by rings of ice and rock
strong atmospheric winds and storms
approximately 10 earth-mass cores
solid surface under a atmosphere

composed mostly of hydrogen and helium
Interior is mostly liquid or metallic hydrogen

21

Sort each of the planetary properties below based on whether they apply to some, all, or none of the four jovian planets in our solar system.

Uranus and Neptune only:

composed mostly of hydrogen and helium
Interior is mostly liquid or metallic hydrogen
blue color because of methane
composed mostly hydrogen compounds
magnetic field stronger than earths
orbited by rings of ice and rock
strong atmospheric winds and storms
approximately 10 earth-mass cores
solid surface under a atmosphere

blue color because of methane
composed mostly hydrogen compounds

22

Sort each of the planetary properties below based on whether they apply to some, all, or none of the four jovian planets in our solar system.

All four jovian Planets:

composed mostly of hydrogen and helium
Interior is mostly liquid or metallic hydrogen
blue color because of methane
composed mostly hydrogen compounds
magnetic field stronger than earths
orbited by rings of ice and rock
strong atmospheric winds and storms
approximately 10 earth-mass cores
solid surface under a atmosphere

magnetic field stronger than earths
orbited by rings of ice and rock
strong atmospheric winds and storms
approximately 10 earth-mass cores

23

Sort each of the planetary properties below based on whether they apply to some, all, or none of the four jovian planets in our solar system.

No jovian Planets:

composed mostly of hydrogen and helium
Interior is mostly liquid or metallic hydrogen
blue color because of methane
composed mostly hydrogen compounds
magnetic field stronger than earths
orbited by rings of ice and rock
strong atmospheric winds and storms
approximately 10 earth-mass cores
solid surface under a atmosphere

solid surface under a atmosphere

24

Io experiences tidal heating primarily because __________.

Io has an unusually elongated shape that makes it look more like an egg than a sphere
Io's elliptical orbit causes the tidal force on Io to vary as it orbits Jupiter
Io is located very close to Jupiter
Io is made of relatively soft materials that deform quite easily

Io's elliptical orbit causes the tidal force on Io to vary as it orbits Jupiter

25

From Part A, Io's elliptical orbit is necessary to its tidal heating. This elliptical orbit, in turn, is a result of the orbital resonance among Io, Europa, and Ganymede. This orbital resonance causes Io to have a more elliptical orbit than it would otherwise, because __________.

Europa and Ganymede always pull on Io from the same direction as Jupiter pulls on Io
Io periodically passes Europa and Ganymede in the same orbital position
all three moons orbit with the same period, staying aligned at all times
Europa and Ganymede are unusually large moons

Io periodically passes Europa and Ganymede in the same orbital position

26

We cannot see tidal forces or tidal heating; rather, we predict that they must occur based on the orbital characteristics of the moons. What observational evidence confirms that tidal heating is important on Io?

Io's surprisingly elliptical orbit
active volcanoes on Io
Io's unusual, egg-like shape
the orbital resonance between Io, Europa, and Ganymede

active volcanoes on Io

27

The orbital resonance also gives Europa an elliptical orbit, so it also experiences tidal heating. However, Europa experiences less tidal heating than Io, because Europa __________ than Io.

is much smaller
is more perfectly spherical in shape
contains much more ice
is farther from Jupiter

is farther from Jupiter

28

We now know of many Jupiter-size planets around other stars. Suppose that future observations show that one of these planets has two orbiting moons. What additional information, if any, would we need to decide whether these moons experience tidal heating?

We need to know whether the planet also has a third moon.
We need to know their orbital periods.
We need to know whether either moon is volcanically active.
No other information is needed: With two moons, there is sure to be tidal heating.
No other information is needed: With two moons, there is no chance of any tidal heating.

We need to know their orbital periods.

29

Listed following are some of the distinguishing geological characteristics of the moons orbiting Jupiter. Match each characteristic to the appropriate moon.

Io:

volcanoes currently erupting.
hot, glowing lava visible in some photos.
source of ionized gas in the donut shaped charged particle belt around jupiter.
surface features provide evidence of a subsurface liquid ocean.
ice covered surface with few impact craters.
largest mooon in the solar system.
heavily cratered terrain adjacent to much younger terrain.

volcanoes currently erupting.
hot, glowing lava visible in some photos.
source of ionized gas in the donut shaped charged particle belt around jupiter.

30

Listed following are some of the distinguishing geological characteristics of the moons orbiting Jupiter. Match each characteristic to the appropriate moon.

Europa:

volcanoes currently erupting.
hot, glowing lava visible in some photos.
source of ionized gas in the donut shaped charged particle belt around jupiter.
surface features provide evidence of a subsurface liquid ocean.
ice covered surface with few impact craters.
largest mooon in the solar system.
heavily cratered terrain adjacent to much younger terrain.

surface features provide evidence of a subsurface liquid ocean.
ice covered surface with few impact craters.

31

Listed following are some of the distinguishing geological characteristics of the moons orbiting Jupiter. Match each characteristic to the appropriate moon.

Ganymede:

volcanoes currently erupting.
hot, glowing lava visible in some photos.
source of ionized gas in the donut shaped charged particle belt around jupiter.
surface features provide evidence of a subsurface liquid ocean.
ice covered surface with few impact craters.
largest mooon in the solar system.
heavily cratered terrain adjacent to much younger terrain.

largest mooon in the solar system.
heavily cratered terrain adjacent to much younger terrain.

32

The largest moon in the solar system is

Ganymede

33

The jovian moon with the most geologically active surface is

io

34

Strong evidence both from surface features and magnetic field data support the existence of a subsurface ocean on

Europa

35

_______ is responsible for the tremendous volcanic activity on Io.

Tidal heating

36

________ is the most distant of Jupiter's four Galilean moons.

Callisto

37

The fact that Europa orbits Jupiter twice for every one orbit of Ganymede is an example of a(n)

Orbital resonance.

38

Saturn’s rings are composed of __________.

gas from the early solar system
a series of solid concentric circles
lots of individual particles of ice and rock
parts of Saturn’s upper atmosphere being vented into space

lots of individual particles of ice and rock

39

Saturn’s rings look bright because __________.

light from the Sun reflects off the material in the rings
the material in the rings is hot and creates its own light
light from Saturn reflects off the material in the rings

light from the Sun reflects off the material in the rings

40

Which of the following statements correctly describes the motion of the particles in Saturn’s rings?

Particles in all the rings hover motionlessly high above Saturn.
Particles in the inner rings orbit Saturn at a faster speed than particles in the outer rings.
Particles in the inner rings orbit Saturn at a slower speed than particles in the outer rings.
All the particles in the rings orbit Saturn with the same orbital period.

Particles in the inner rings orbit Saturn at a faster speed than particles in the outer rings

41

Which of the following gases is not a significant ingredient of the jovian planet atmospheres?

carbon dioxide
hydrogen
helium
water

carbon dioxide

42

What would happen to Jupiter if we could somehow double its mass?

Its density would stay about the same and its volume would double.
It would become a star, with nuclear fusion in its core.
Its density would decrease and its diameter would double.
Its density would increase but its diameter would barely change.

Its density would increase but its diameter would barely change.

43

Which planet may have helium rain in its interior, and what does this rain do?

Jupiter, where it may be an energy source for the Great Red Spot.
Saturn, where it generates heat as it falls downward.
Uranus, where it makes the ground wet.
Neptune, where it is restructuring the planet's interior.

Saturn, where it generates heat as it falls downward.

44

Which of the following best explains why we see horizontal "stripes" in photographs of Jupiter and Saturn?

There are three different color stripes corresponding to the three different types of clouds found on these planets.
Dark stripes are those in which there is a stratosphere and light stripes are those with no stratosphere.
The dark and light stripes correspond to alternating bands of different chemical composition.
The light stripes are regions of high clouds, and the dark stripes are regions where we can see down to deeper, darker clouds.

The light stripes are regions of high clouds, and the dark stripes are regions where we can see down to deeper, darker clouds.

45

Why does Jupiter have three distinct layers of clouds?

Clouds form randomly, so on average there are always three layers.
Jupiter has three different types of wind that each make a different type of cloud.
The three layers reflect regions of Jupiter's atmosphere with different overall chemical compositions.
The three layers represent clouds made of gases that condense at different temperatures.

The three layers represent clouds made of gases that condense at different temperatures.

46

Uranus and Neptune have methane clouds but Jupiter and Saturn do not. Which factor explains why?

The rapid rotation of Jupiter and Saturn prevents methane clouds from forming.
The stronger gravity on Jupiter and Saturn pulls methane downward so that it can't form clouds.
Temperatures on Jupiter and Saturn are too high for methane to condense.
Jupiter and Saturn do not contain any methane gas.

Temperatures on Jupiter and Saturn are too high for methane to condense.

47

Which jovian planet should have the most extreme seasonal changes?

Uranus
Jupiter
Neptune
Saturn

Uranus

48

Which of the following best explains why many jovian moons have been more geologically active than the Moon or Mercury?

Jovian moons are made mostly of ice that can melt or deform at lower temperatures than can the rock and metal that make up the Moon and Mercury.
The jovian moons are considerably larger than the Moon and Mercury and therefore have retained much more internal heat.
The jovian moons probably have far more internal heat generated by radioactive decay than do the Moon or Mercury.
Because of their greater distances from the Sun, the jovian moons receive much less heat from the Sun.

Jovian moons are made mostly of ice that can melt or deform at lower temperatures than can the rock and metal that make up the Moon and Mercury.

49

All the following statements are true. Which one is most important in explaining the tremendous tidal heating that occurs on Io?

Io is the closest to Jupiter of Jupiter's large moons.
Io orbits Jupiter in the Io torus, and therefore has a surface that is bombarded by many charged particles.
Io exhibits synchronous rotation, meaning that its rotation period and orbital period are the same.
Io orbits Jupiter on an elliptical orbit, due to orbital resonances with other satellites.

Io orbits Jupiter on an elliptical orbit, due to orbital resonances with other satellites.

50

Which of the following is not a piece of evidence supporting the idea that Europa may have a subsurface ocean?

Astronomers have detected small lakes of liquid water on Europa's surface.
Europa's surface shows very few impact craters.
Europa has a magnetic field that appears to be induced by Jupiter's magnetic field.
Photos of Europa's surface show regions that appear to consist of jumbled icebergs frozen in place.

Astronomers have detected small lakes of liquid water on Europa's surface.

51

Which of the following is most unlikely to be found on Titan?

lakes of liquid methane ethane or
volcanic outgassing of methane and other gases
lakes of liquid water in the warmer equatorial regions
rain or snow consisting of methane or ethane droplets or ice crystals

lakes of liquid water in the warmer equatorial regions

52

Why do astronomers believe that Triton is a captured moon?

Triton appears to be made mostly of ice.
Triton is too large to have been formed in the "miniature solar nebula" thought to have surrounded Neptune in its very early history.
Triton is very small and potato-shaped, which is common of captured moons.
Triton orbits Neptune in a direction opposite that of Neptune's rotation.

Triton orbits Neptune in a direction opposite that of Neptune's rotation.

53

Which statement about Saturn's rings is not true?

Some features of the rings are shaped by small moons that actually orbit within the ring system.
The rings must look much the same today as they did shortly after Saturn formed.
The large gap known as the Cassini Division is shaped by an orbital resonance with the moon Mimas, which orbits well outside the rings.
The rings are so thin that they essentially disappear from view when seen edge-on.

The rings must look much the same today as they did shortly after Saturn formed.