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Flashcards in Fisher Supreme Court Deck (36):
1

Marbury v Madison

1803 - 1st time Sc declared a federal action unconstitutional. Established SC's power of judicial review.

2

Brown v Board of Education

1954 - Separate schools for black and white students unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v Ferguson

3

National federation of Independent Business

2012 - Upheld most of Obama Care incl. individual mandate. Struck down provision that states would loose all Medicaid funding if they failed to expand it.

4

Bush v Gore

2000 - Ruled Florida's recount after 2000 presidential election was unconstitutional under the equal protection cause of the 14th Amendment.

5

US vs Arizona

2012 - Struck down provisions of Arizona law requiring police to check immigration status of anyone if they had 'reasonable suspicion'.

6

Rasul v Bush

Foreign detainees held at Guantanamo Bay did have access to US federal courts to challenge their detention.

7

Hamdan V Rumsfeld

Military commissions set up by Bush to try and hold people at Guan bay rules unconstitutional.

8

Boumediene v Bush

2008 - Procedures set up by Bush administration & Congress following Hamdan decision were inadequate to ensure detainees received their day in court.

9

National Labor Relations Board v Noel Canning

2014 - President lacked constitutional authority to make high-level executive branch appointments when Senate technically available to give advice & consent.

10

United States v Texas

2016 - Obama’s executive order Deferred Action for Parents of Americans & Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA) unconstitutional as it breached clause of Article 2 of the Constitution that required president to ‘take care the laws be faithfully executed’.

11

United States v Windsor

2013
Defense of Marriage Act (1996), which stated marriage between one man & one women, unconstitutional, as it denied federal benefits to married same-sex couples that were available to other married couples.

12

Obergefell v Hodges

2015
State bans on same-sex marriage violated 14th Amendment, which forbids states from denying equal protection of laws within the state

13

Shelby v Holder

2013
Struck down provision of Voting Rights Act (1965) that certain southern states must obtain preclearance from Justice Department before any changes to their voting laws.

14

Gonzales v Raich

2005
Ruled federal govt could ban growth of marijuana under commerce clause. Case arose after 2002 California legalised use of medical marijuana, even though it is illegal under federal law.

15

Roe v Wade

1973
Women had right to abortion under 14th Amendment right of ‘liberty’.

16

Gonzales v Carhart

2007
Upheld Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003, which banned procedure used in small number of later abortions, crushing skull of foetus.

17

Zelman v Simmons Harris

2002
Upheld Ohio's 'school voucher' programme giving financial aid to parents to send children to religious or private schools.

18

Town of Greece v Galloway

2014
Legislative bodies could begin meetings with prayer, even if they clearly favoured one religion.

19

Burwell v Hobby Lobby

2014
Struck down provision of Obamacare that required family-owned corporations to pay for health insurance coverage of employees for contraception, as it violated Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) 1993.

20

Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia v Comer

2017
Missouri should provide aid to church even though state constitution calls for separation of church & state.

21

Buckley v Valeo

1976
Part of Federal Election Campaign Act (1974) that limited expenditure by presidential candidates was unconstitutional.

22

McConnell v FEC

2003
Upheld provisions of Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) that banned use of 'soft money' (paid directly to a political party) for particular candidate

23

Citizens United v FEC

2010
Business corporations & labour unions have same rights of political free speech as individuals.

24

McCutcheon v FEC

2014
Struck down 1970s limit on total amount of money wealthy donors can contribute to candidates.

25

District of Columbia v Heller

2008
The 'right to keep and bear arms’ is individual right. Struck down a District of Columbia law restricting ownership & use of guns.

26

McDonald v City of Chicago

2010
Under due process clause of 14th Amendment, right to bear arms cannot be infringed by state or local governments.

27

Atkins v Virginia

2002
Execution of mentally disabled criminals infringed 8th Amendment, but SC did not define mental disability.

28

Roper v Simmons

2005
Unconstitutional to sentence anyone to death for crime they committed when younger than 18.

29

Baze v Rees

2008
Lethal injection not a ‘cruel and unusual punishment’.

30

Moore v Texas

2017
Executing murderer Bobby Moore unconstitutional, as IQ testing used by Texas out of date & unreliable.

31

University of California v Bakke

1978
Ruled out racial quotas in university admissions programmes, but left door open to race being considered.

32

Gratz v Bollinger

2003
University of Michigan’s affirmative action-based admissions programme for undergraduates too ‘mechanistic’ (all black, Hispanic & American-Indian applicants awarded 20/ 150 points required).

33

Grutter v Bollinger

2003
University of Michigan Law School’s admission programme constitutional as it used a more ‘individualised’ approach.

34

Parents Involved & Meredith cases

2007
Unconstitutional to assign students to public schools solely for purpose of achieving racial balance.

35

Fisher v University of Texas

2013
Upheld decision of university to reject Abigail Fisher, who argued she was victim of racial discrimination, as minority race students with less impressive grades were accepted.

36

In 2010, state of union address Obama criticised the courts judgement in .......... v. ....

Citizens United v. FEC