Kaplan Ch. 8 - Social Processes, Attitudes, And Behavior Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioral Sciences > Kaplan Ch. 8 - Social Processes, Attitudes, And Behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kaplan Ch. 8 - Social Processes, Attitudes, And Behavior Deck (29):
1

Social Action

Refers to the fact that humans tend to act differently in groups than when alone, social action is the set of actions and behaviors that are intentionally exhibited in the company of others

2

Social facilitation as it relates to task performance

People tend to perform better on simple tasks in the presence of others and poorer on more complex tasks in the presence of others

3

Deindividuation

Loss of individual identity in a large group because the person feels a sense of anonymity in the group that they don't feel as an individual

4

What additional behavior can deindividuation lead to?

It can lead an individual to act or behave in a way that is otherwise inconsistent with their normal self

5

Bystander effect:
- individuals do not ...
- Effect of size of crowd ...
- How relationship of group members effects response

- Individuals do not intervene to help victims when others are present
- The more people are present the less likely they are to intervene
- The less the group of bystanders know each other the slower they will be to respond

6

Social loafing

Tendency of individual to put in less effort when in a group setting than individually

7

What is identity shift effect? What residual effect can it have on the individual?

- When an individual conforms to the norms of the group because the fear social rejection.
- individual shifts internal identity to align with social norms so as to avoid internal conflict

8

Cognitive dissonance

Simultaneous existence of two opposing thoughts or opinions

9

Social Interaction

Explores the ways in which two or more individuals can both shape each other's behavior

10

Group polarization

Describes the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the individual ideas and inclinations of the members of the group. Choices tend to be either more risky or more cautious.

11

Groupthink

Desire for conformity results in a group of people coming to an incorrect or poor decision

12

Socialization

Process of developing, inheriting, and spreading norms, customs and beliefs that are necessary for inclusion in society

13

Cultural transmission

Manner in which a society socializes its members

14

Cultural diffusion

Spread of norms, customs and beliefs throughout culture

15

How is socialization broken down?

Primary and secondary socialization

16

Primary Socialization
1) When does this occur?
2) What do we learn in this period?
3) How do we learn these things?

1) Childhood
2) Acceptable actions and attitudes
3) Through observation of our parents and other adults close to us

17

Secondary Socialization
1) What do we learn in this period?
2) How do we learn these things?

1) Appropriate behavior in smaller sections of society
2) From peers, co-workers, friends etc. outside the home environment

18

Anticipatory socialization

When a person adapts their behavior and attitude to suit a future endeavor (I.e occupation, life event, relationship, etc.)

19

What is a social norm?

Societal rules that define acceptable behavior (guidelines not law)

20

What are mores?

Social norms that are pervasive in a society

21

Why are social norms useful?

They provide a means of social control

22

What is a social stigma?

Extreme disapproval or dislike of a person or group based on perceived differences from the norm

23

What is labeling theory (relates to self image)

Labels given to us affect how others respond to us and also how we see ourselves.

24

What is differential association theory as it relates to deviance?

Deviance is learned through interactions with others

25

What is strain theory as it relates to deviance?

States that deviance is a natural disconnect between social goals and social structure

26

Conformity

Matching one's attitudes, beliefs and behaviors to societal norms, can be due to fear of rejection or other motivations

27

Compliance

Changing your behavior due to a request. The person making the request has no official authority to command this change but is rather using other modes of persuasion to get you to change your behavior.

28

Attitude

Expression of positive or negative feelings toward something / someone

29

What are the 3 components of attitude?
HINT: ABCs

Affective - emotional component
Behavioral - way a person acts toward something
Cognitive - way an individual thinks about something