Kaplana 1 Flashcards Preview

A1 Pediatrics > Kaplana 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kaplana 1 Deck (50):
1

Transient Erythroblastopenia of Childhood (TEC)

most common acquired pure red cell aplasia in kids

presents 6 mos to 3 years after viral illness; transient immune suppression of RBC production

Follow over 1-2 months for spontaneous resolution. transfusions may be indicated in unusual cases with hemodynamic compromise.

2

kid from mexico, ultrasound shows liver abscess. Next step?

serum antibody testing for entamoeba amebiasis

treat with metronidazole

3

apical click followed by late systolic murmur

mitral valve prolapse. Expect normal sized heart, normal ECG or with unifocal/ multifocal PVCs and biphasic T waves.
Echo shows posterior movement of posterior leaflet of valve.

4

microhematuria after minor trauma in kid

do an ultrasound of kidneys, ureter, and bladder in case of congenital anomaly or blunt trauma injury. If normal, redo urinalysis over next 2 weeks.

5

what indicates good prognosis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (oligoarticular)?

positive antinuclear antibodies.

6

first sign of premature puberty

thelarche

7

fragile X

most common inherited intellectual disability/ causeof autism

amplification of trinucleotide sequence of FMR1 on X chromosome
in full mutation- absent gene product

genetic anticipation

8

ulcerative colitis antibodies, commonly

p-anca

9

hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets

vitamin D-resistant rickets
X-liinked disorder
slow growth, rickets
urinary excretion of phosphate is high.

10

Jervell-Lange Nielsen syndrome

prolonged QT
recurring episodes of torsades de pointes or ventricular fibrillation (ventricular arrhythmias)
sensorineural deafness
famiy history

11

sterp pharyngitis complications... what doesn't get prevented with antibiotics?

treat with penicillin; with allergy, macrolide.

Complications: rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, peritonsillar abscess, and retropharyngeal abscess

glomerulonephritis not preventable with abx (immune mediated reaction)

12

trisomy 21 heart defect?

endocardial cushions defect (both ASD and VSD that are contiguous)

13

measles

cough, coryza and conjunctiitis --> rash that starts at the head and spreads to trunk and limbs
Koplik spots (red with blue/white centers) on mucous membranes of mouth
complication: acute otitis media

Paramyxoviridae

14

What to do for foreign body aspiration?

rigid bronchoscopy under anesthesia because greater access to the subglottic airways, optimal passage and extraction while maintaining adequate oxygenation of the patient

15

infantile hemangiomas in the liver are associated with

high-output cardiac failure due to increased vascular flow.

16

most common causes of meningitis in neonatal period

Group B Strep, E coli, and Listeria

17

most common cause of brain abscess formation in meningitis (babies)

citrobacter koseri or freundii

18

Spinal motor atrophy type I

Wednig Hoffman disease
progressive denerative disease of motor neurons
feeding difficulties, progressive hypotonia, weakness, absent DTR, tongue fasciculations, respiratory distress

confirm with muscle biopsy; simplest dx is SMN gene mutation in blood

19

most serious possible complication of chicken pox?

pneumonia

20

Kawasaki disease

2nd most common acute vasculitis in kids and most common cause of acquired heart disease

dx: fever 5 days, plus 4/5:
bulbar conjunctivitis
intraoral erythema and/or dry, cracked lips
extremity edema and erythema
rash of any type except vesicular
lymphadenitis
almost always a single, tender, large anterior cervical node

admit, give IVIG and high dose aspirin

21

infant at high risk for RSV, treat with what?

palivizumab- up to 5 monthly intramuscular injections during RSV season

preemies, heart disease, etc.

22

most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism

thyroid dysgenesis

23

finding with A fib?

enlarged left atrium

a fib can be from hyperthyroidism

24

retinoblastoma goes with

osteosarcome

25

sickle cell and spleen

autoinfarction by around age 5

26

nitro blue test goes with

leukocyte adhesion deficiency

27

immunodeficiency that goes with neisseria

C5-C9

28

transfusion reaction goes with what immunodeficiency?

IgA

29

eczema and bleeding?

Wiskott Aldrich

30

treat salicylate poisoning?

gastric lavage with airway protection

activated charcoal

aggressive IV fluids with bicarb

31

Alport syndrome

nephritis
sensorineural hearing loss
anterior lenticonus.

32

ALL signs/ symptoms

bone and joint pain lower extremities
anemia, thrombocytopenia, bleeding, fever, infecttion
organ infiltration: lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, testicular enlargement, CNS involement
WBC can be normal or changed

33

Roseola

HHV 6
fever first, then widespread macular rash 1-3 days.

34

Rubella

looks like measles but ffades after 3 days. Posterior lymphadenopathy , sometimes arthralgias of hands

35

Syaphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

toxin mediated
from an infectious nidus
toxin cleaves desmoglein-1

fever, conjunctivitis, diffuse rash, desquamation, nikolsky sign, radial crusting and fissuring around eyes, nose and mouth

Similar to bullous impetigo (exfoliative toxin-A)

36

maternal diabetes -->

neural tube, cardiac and urological malformations

polyhdramnios

37

treatment of ankylosing spondylitis

NSAIDs like indomethacin
TNF for advanced disease

38

bacterial vaginosis

discharge and odor, not STD.
grayish-white with pH over 4.5

KOH whiff test positive
clue cells (adherence of Gardnerella to epithelial cells)

treat with metronidazole

39

glanzmann thrombasthenia

autosomal recessive
lack of platelet membrain GPIIB-IIIa --> bad aggregation
defective clot formation, bleeding esp from mucosal surfaces

40

Bell palsy associations

HSV
Epstein Barr
Lyme

give glucocorticoids and eye lubricants

41

presentation of lice

itching of scalp
small, oval, whitish nodules firmly attached to hair shafts

scratching--> lichenification and posterior lymphadenopathy

treat with lindane, malathion, or permethrin

42

treatment of syphilitic chancre

painless with indurated edge. primary syphilis

benzathine pen G IM

43

daycare hepatitis?

likely Hep A. Test IgM in serum.

44

risk for subluxation of hips? (developmental dysplasia of the hip)

breech and female, family history

45

valproate exposure in utero -->

high broad forehead, epicanthal folds, thin, arched wide-spaced eyebrows, broad and low nasal bridge with a small upturned nose, thick lips

CV: septal defects, pulmonary atresia, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, hypoplastic left heart

cleft lip and palate

neural tube defects

limb malformations

cryptorchidism, hypospadias

developmental delays, ADD, communication problems, learning disorders

46

best test for lupus?

antinuclear antibody

seizure is a common neurologic manifestation

47

most common cause of diffuse bronchiectasis in children

cystic fibrosis

48

repeated doses of cefaclor can -->

serum sickness-like reaction

urticarial to purpuric rash, lymphadenopathy, fever, arthritis

49

periventricular white matter necrosis -->

cerebral palsy --> diplegic or quadriplegic spasticity

50

McCune Albright syndrome

also called polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
precocious puberty, multiple cystic bone lesions, cafe au lait spots