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Flashcards in Key Beliefs of Buddhism Deck (42):
1

The three watches of the night

Knowledge of all previous lives
Kamma
The causes of suffering and how to overcome it

2

The four sights

Sickness
Old age
Death
A wandering holy man

3

Asceticism

To give up all luxuries

4

Renunciation

To turn your back on something

5

The middle way

When both extremes of luxury and suffering didn’t work, you have to find a middle. (Demonstrated on a lute)

6

The four noble truths

Everybody suffers
The cause of suffering is desire
We can end suffering by detaching ourselves from our desires
If we follow the Eightfold path, we will overcome suffering

7

4 unavoidable types of physical suffering

Birth
Old age
Sickness
Death

8

3 main forms of mental suffering

Separation from someone/thing you love
Contact with someone/thing you dislike
Not being able to achieve your desires

9

Tanha

Thirst or craving

10

3 types of craving

Things that please the senses
To become something you are not
The non-existence of something

11

Nibbana

To extinguish

12

The Eightfold path

Right speech
Right action
Right livelihood
Right effort
Right mindfulness
Right concentration
Right understanding
Right intention

13

3 sections of the eight fold path, ‘pathas’

Ethics (Sila) - speech, action, livelihood
Meditation (Samadhi) - effort, mindfulness, concentration
Wisdom (Dhammapada) - understanding, intention

14

The three marks of existence

dukkha, anicca, anatta

15

Dukkha

Suffering

16

3 different forms of suffering (dukkha)

Physical suffering, change, attachment

17

Anicca

Impermanence

18

Everything is constantly changing:

All living things grow, mature and die
Non living things also decay over time
Our minds change

19

How are anicca and dukkha interconnected

We suffer because we do not want thing to change and try to hold on to good times. Accepting change means we suffer less

20

Anatta

The self is not fixed or permanent

21

5 aggregates

Form
Sensation
Perception
Mental formations
Consciousness

22

How is anatta and dukkha related?

If you’re constantly trying to look out for your ‘self’ then you will be causing suffering for others

23

3 poisons

Pig - ignorance
Cockerel - greed
Snake - hatred

24

Buddhist scriptures

Jataka tales - stories about the buddhas past lives
Dhammapada - buddhas teachings in verse form (often used for chanting)
Tiptaka (or Pali Canon) - Buddha’s teachings

25

Dhamma

Truth about the universe - discovered by Buddha in his enlightenment

26

Dhamma is also called..... which is.....

Refuge which is a place to go to escape suffering

27

The three refuges (the three jewels)

Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha

28

Sangha

The whole Buddhist community (also includes nuns, monks and those who have already achieved enlightenment)

29

Dependent arising

Inter-relatedness (nothing exists or happens on its own)

30

Kamma as an example of dependent arising

Our actions create the conditions for happiness or suffering in later lives

31

Samsara

The cycle of birth, death and re-birth

32

2 ways if nibbana

Extinguishing the ‘self’ by practicing meditation and the Eightfold path
Extinguishing the ‘self’ by no longer requiring reincarnation into another physical body after death

33

2 different types of Buddhists

Theravada and Mahayana

34

Theravada Buddhists view on Buddha

One of the three jewels / refuges
Not a God but an example for us to follow
Was only ever a human being
No longer inter-acts with us on earth

35

Arhat

‘Perfect person’ who has overcome suffering. When they die they escape Samsara (this is the ultimate goal)

36

What do Theravada Buddhists devote their whole lives to doing?

Achieving enlightenment

37

Name 2 groups belonging to Mahayana Buddhists

Tibetan Buddhists and zen Buddhists

38

Mahayana Buddhists view on Buddha

Buddha is still watching us and inter-acts
Might appear in visions or when somebody in need is meditating

39

‘Buddha nature’

Mahayana Buddhists believe everybody has a seed of Buddha in them

40

Bodhisattva

Your soul either returns to Earth in another form (earthly bodhisattva) or you become a spiritual or mythical being existing between the worlds of earth and nibbana and people pray to you for help (transcendent bodhisattva)

41

Mahayana Buddhists’ aim of an enlightened being

To use their enlightenment to help others by becoming a bodhisattva

42

Six perfections

Generosity, morality, patience, energy, meditation and wisdom