Flashcards in Key Events: King James - Start of Personal Rule Deck (46):
Who were the puritans?
Reformed protestants who sought to 'purify' the Church of England from Catholicism
What were the 4 key areas of conflict throughout the ECW period?
- Relations between Crown and Parliament
- Foreign Policy
- Financial issues
What did King James do in 1618 that angered puritans?
Issued the Book of Sports, which allowed recreational activities to be carried out on Sundays
Year of the Gunpowder plot, by radical Catholics
Differences between Scottish and English Parliaments
Scottish was loyal and lenient
English was confrontational and independent
What were the puritans views on bishops in the church?
Wanted the abolition of the episcopacy
King James ended war with Spain
In 1604, through the Treaty of London
When did King James die and Prince Charles become king?
How was King James extravagant?
- Threw lavish parties
- Gave large sums of money to friends
Why was Parliament reluctant to grant King James subsides?
- 1606 Parliament had granted James 3 subsides to help his debts, yet they continued to rise.
- He'd resorted to selling titles and honours cheaply.
- Royal debt stood at £900,000 in 1620.
What was Charles attitude like?
- Stubborn and uncompromising
- Arrogant, firm belief in divine right of Kings
How did James debt rise between when he came to the throne in 1603 and 1606?
From £400,000 in 1603, to £700,000 in 1606
Why were there concerns over Charles marriage with a Catholic princess?
- Puritans upset as Charles moved to grant concessions to English Catholics.
- Princess brought large number of Catholic courtiers, so was isolated from Charles and the English nobility.
- Many feared it would lead to close alliances with Catholic powers.
Who was the Duke of Buckingham?
King James' closest friend and later Charles chief minister
How much debt did Charles inherit with the Throne in 1625?
What controversial move did the 1625 parliament make in regards to Charles finance?
- Refused to grant Charles Tonnage and Poundage for life, as was customary for the previous 100 years.
- Only granted it to him for 1 year.
What was Parliaments most influential power?
Parliament could refuse to grant Charles money.
What was Tonnage and Poundage?
Tax on imports, particularly alcohol
Why didn't parliament grant Charles Tonnage + Poundage for life?
They were concerned as to what the new finances would be used for
- They wanted to use T+P as an incentive for Charles to address their grievances
How to Charles respond to the 1625 Parliaments refusal to grant him T+P?
- Dissolved 1625 Parliament.
- The next parliament (1626), refused to debate over finance and instead attacked Duke of Buckingham, so Charles dissolved them too.
- Then Charles levied the 'Forced Loan' on the gentry.
Why was the five knights case significant?
The ruling of the court effectively approved royal tyranny and absolutism
How was Charles responsible for religious controversy between 1625 - 29?
- Charles appointed controversial, and anti-calvinist, Arminian cleric Richard Montagu as his personal chaplain.
- Archbishop of Canterbury George Abbot is suspended in 1627 for refusing to approve an arminian sermon.
- Influential arminian William Laud is appointed to the Privy Council in 1627.
What is the Privy Council?
The formal body of advisors to the monarch
What was the forced loan?
Describe the Five Knights case.
- After 76 gentry refused to pay the forced loan, they were imprisoned
- 5 of these people submitted writs of Habeas Corpus, forcing a court hearing
- The judges ruled in favour of Charles, but the legality of his actions were deemed to be questionable
How much was raised by the forced loan over a year?
How was the Mansfeld expedition a failure for Charles?
- Half the troops under the command of Buckingham died of starvation before they reached the battle.
- By the time the extent of failure was clear, James had died and Charles had inherited the consequences.
What happened during the attack on Cadiz?
- Due to an unclear chain of command, the Spanish fleet were able to escape.
- The English soldiers had no food or water when they reached land, so broke into farmhouses to drink wine.
- The Spanish treasure fleet, the motive for the attack, had been forewarned so wasn't in the area.
How did Charles show his anti-catholic side?
Joined the thirty years war on the side of the Protestants
Why did the public begin to resent Charles' foreign policy?
- Soldiers were conscripted and billeted in peoples houses, and answered only to martial law not local laws.
- He appointed the incompetent Duke of Buckingham as commander-in-chief.
What year was the Cadiz expedition?
In what year did the failed wooing of the Spanish infanta by Buckingham and Charles take place?
What was the La Rochelle disaster?
- Buckingham's inept diplomacy led to war with France
- An English army of poor quality attempted to support a protestant rebellion, which failed
- Half of the english soldiers sent to France died, and Buckingham was blamed directly by the public.
How did Charles subdue the Parliament of 1628?
Charles demanded that he'd only work with Parliament if they didn't attack Buckingham.
In what year was the Petition of right issued?
What was the Petition of right?
A list of the grievances of Parliament, which Parliament insisted be met before they granted any taxes.
When did Charles consent to the Petition of Right?
When was Buckingham assassinated?
What did Parliament grant the King after he agreed to the Petition of right?
5 subsides and Tonnage and Poundage
Why did Charles blame parliament for Buckinghams death?
Because Buckinghams killer said he had been inspired by the remonstrance of Parliament through the petition of right.
When did Parliament issue the three resolutions?
What were the three resolutions?
- Parliament denounced Charle arminian advisors
- Parliament announced that the king levying T+P was unacceptable
- Those who paid T+P were labeled enemies of the kingdom
What remarkable events happened in Parliament due to the three resolutions?
- Charles ordered that Parliament be adjourned before the resolutions were read
- A group of MP's held the speaker in his chair until the resolutions were passed, whilst the Kings officials hammered on the locked doors of the Commons.
When did Charles formally dissolve parliament for the start of his personal rule?
Which two ringleader MP's were responsible for holding the speaker down?
- Denzil Holles
- John Eliot