Key Issue 1 - Weimar Republic Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Key Issue 1 - Weimar Republic Deck (70)
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1

On what day was the armistice which ended the First World War signed?

11 November 1918

2

On what day was the armistice which ended the First World War signed?

11 November 1918

3

Where did the government decide to meet in 1919 because they thought Berlin was too dangerous?

Weimar, hence the eventual name of the new republic

4

What type of government did Germany have in 1919

A democratic, coalition government

5

How often was a new president elected?

Every seven years

6

What was Article 48?

Article 48 meant that the President could suspend the Constitution in an emergency. He could make laws and keep the Chancellor without the support of the Reichstag. Basically it allowed the President to rule by decree without parliament, just like a Kaiser

7

Who could vote?

Men and women over the age of 20

8

Who was the supreme controller of the army?

President

9

How many people formed the Reichstag in 1919?

421

10

How many people formed the Reichstag in 1933?

647

11

What could the President do?

Dismiss and call new elections, choose the Chancellor, activate Article 48 and control the army

12

What were the effects of proportional representation?

This produced a large number of parties, which made it difficult to create political stability - no party was able to win a majority

13

When was the Treaty of Versailles signed?

28th June 1919

14

What did the politicians who signed the treaty become known as?

The November Criminals

15

What were some of the territorial terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

-all colonies had to be given to the Allied Powers
-Alsace Lorraine was returned to France
-Eupen Malmedy was given to Belgium after a plebiscite
-Saar to be administered by the League of Nations
-Posen and West Prussia given to Poland
-Danzig created a Free City
-no union with Austria (Anschluss)

16

What were some of the military terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

-army not to exceed 100000
-no tanks, armoured cars and heavy military permitted
-no military aircraft or submarines permitted
-no naval vessel to be greater than 10000 tons
-Rhineland demilitarised

17

What were some of the financial terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

-coal to be mined by France in the Saar
-reparations fixed at £6 billion

18

Which groups hated the Weimar government?

Socialists, communists, nationalists, army leaders and those who had run Germany before 1918

19

Why did Germany need a new government?

Germany was starving and could not carry on with the First World War and needed to make peace. The Allies would not make peace unless they got rid of the Kaiser and set up a democracy.
October 1918- Germany navy refused to fight,
10th Novermber 1918- Kaiser fled to Holland,
Ebert signs the Armistice.

20

What part did the army play in controlling uprisings?

The army agreed to support the government against revolution, and in return the government would support and supply the army. Thus Weimar became dependent on the army

21

Who were the Spartacist League?

Led by Karl Liebernecht and Rosa Luxemberg, the Spartacists were a radical communist group who sought to establish a state based on communist ideals

22

Which government party did the Spartacists eventually become?

The German Communist Party - KPD

23

When was the Spartacist Uprising against Ebert and the Weimar Gorvernment?

6th January 1919

24

How was the Spartacist Uprising dealt with?

Ebert used the regular army and the Friekorps (his private illegal right wing army) to put down the communist rebellion. The leaders of the Spartacists were killed without a trial

25

What caused the Kapp Putsch in March 1920?

The Weimar government announced measure to reduce the size of the army and disband the Friekorps

26

When rebelling, what did the leader, Wolfgang Kapp, stress?

The communist threat, the act of being stabbed in the back by the politicians who signed the Treaty of Versailles and the severity of the treaty

27

How successful was the Kapp Putsch?

The regular army supported the Friekorps and so they managed to seize Berlin. However Ebert asked the people of Berlin to go on strike, meaning the Putsch had no support, as it collapsed. Very few people were punished for it.

28

Were there other uprisings?

Soon after the Kapp Putsch there was a communist uprising in the Ruhr, which was brutally put down by the army. Two leading Weimar ministers were assassinated in 1921 and 1922. A putsch in Munich les by Hitler occurred in 1923.

29

How many murders are estimated to have occurred between 1919 and 1922?

376, most of them by the right, however many left wingers were punished

30

What is hyperinflation?

Where the value of money plummets and becomes almost worthless

31

Why did the French occupy the Ruhr in 1923?

Germany couldn’t afford to pay reparations due to hyperinflation, which made the French angry as they needed to pay off their war debts to the USA. They decided to take the goods needed instead of wait for Germany to pay

32

How did Germany react to the French occupation of the Ruhr?

Germany responded with passive resistance, however this resulted in many acts of industrial sabotage taking place. Many German workers went on strike, however some set factories on fire and sabotaged pumps in mines, therefore flooding them. A number of strikers were shot by the French

33

What were the results of the rebellion against the French occupation of the Ruhr?

- united the German people in their hatred of the French
- strikers became the heroes of Germany for standing up to the Treaty of Versailles
- German government supported the strikers and printed more money to pay them a wage
- fewer goods were being produced in Germany
- led to hyperinflation

34

How much was £1 worth in:
a) July 1914
b) Jan 1919
c) Jan 1923
d) Nov 1923


a) 20 marks
b) 35 marks
c) 71,888 marks
d) more than 1 quadrillion

35

How did inflation benefit some people?

-businessmen who had borrowed money from the banks were able to pay off these debts
- serious food shortages led to a rise in prices of food which helped farmers
- foreigners in Germany had a huge advantage in terms of currency conversion rates

36

Who became Chancellor in the summer of 1923?

Gustav Stresemann, who began to steady things and introduced a new currency

37

Where did the government decide to meet in 1919 because they thought Berlin was too dangerous?

Weimar, hence the eventual name of the new republic

38

What type of government did Germany have in 1919

A democratic, coalition government

39

How often was a new president elected?

Every seven years

40

What was Article 48?

Article 48 meant that the President could suspend the Constitution in an emergency. He could make laws and keep the Chancellor without the support of the Reichstag. Basically it allowed the President to rule by decree without parliament, just like a Kaiser

41

Who could vote?

Men and women over the age of 20

42

Who was the supreme controller of the army?

President

43

How many people formed the Reichstag in 1919?

421

44

How many people formed the Reichstag in 1933?

647

45

What could the President do?

Dismiss and call new elections, choose the Chancellor, activate Article 48 and control the army

46

What were the effects of proportional representation?

This produced a large number of parties, which made it difficult to create political stability - no party was able to win a majority

47

When was the Treaty of Versailles signed?

28th June 1919

48

What did the politicians who signed the treaty become known as?

The November Criminals

49

What were some of the territorial terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

-all colonies had to be given to the Allied Powers
-Alsace Lorraine was returned to France
-Eupen Malmedy was given to Belgium after a plebiscite
-Saar to be administered by the League of Nations
-Posen and West Prussia given to Poland
-Danzig created a Free City
-no union with Austria (Anschluss)

50

What were some of the military terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

-army not to exceed 100000
-no tanks, armoured cars and heavy military permitted
-no military aircraft or submarines permitted
-no naval vessel to be greater than 10000 tons
-Rhineland demilitarised

51

What were some of the financial terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

-coal to be mined by France in the Saar
-reparations fixed at £6 billion

52

Which groups hated the Weimar government?

Socialists, communists, nationalists, army leaders and those who had run Germany before 1918

53

Why did Germany need a new government?

Germany was starving and could not carry on with the First World War and needed to make peace. The Allies would not make peace unless they got rid of the Kaiser and set up a democracy.
October 1918- Germany navy refused to fight,
10th Novermber 1918- Kaiser fled to Holland,
Ebert signs the Armistice.

54

What part did the army play in controlling uprisings?

The army agreed to support the government against revolution, and in return the government would support and supply the army. Thus Weimar became dependent on the army

55

Who were the Spartacist League?

Led by Karl Liebernecht and Rosa Luxemberg, the Spartacists were a radical communist group who sought to establish a state based on communist ideals

56

Which government party did the Spartacists eventually become?

The German Communist Party - KPD

57

When was the Spartacist Uprising against Ebert and the Weimar Gorvernment?

6th January 1919

58

How was the Spartacist Uprising dealt with?

Ebert used the regular army and the Friekorps (his private illegal right wing army) to put down the communist rebellion. The leaders of the Spartacists were killed without a trial

59

What caused the Kapp Putsch in March 1920?

The Weimar government announced measure to reduce the size of the army and disband the Friekorps

60

When rebelling, what did the leader, Wolfgang Kapp, stress?

The communist threat, the act of being stabbed in the back by the politicians who signed the Treaty of Versailles and the severity of the treaty

61

How successful was the Kapp Putsch?

The regular army supported the Friekorps and so they managed to seize Berlin. However Ebert asked the people of Berlin to go on strike, meaning the Putsch had no support, as it collapsed. Very few people were punished for it.

62

Were there other uprisings?

Soon after the Kapp Putsch there was a communist uprising in the Ruhr, which was brutally put down by the army. Two leading Weimar ministers were assassinated in 1921 and 1922. A putsch in Munich les by Hitler occurred in 1923.

63

How many murders are estimated to have occurred between 1919 and 1922?

376, most of them by the right, however many left wingers were punished

64

What is hyperinflation?

Where the value of money plummets and becomes almost worthless

65

Why did the French occupy the Ruhr in 1923?

Germany couldn’t afford to pay reparations due to hyperinflation, which made the French angry as they needed to pay off their war debts to the USA. They decided to take the goods needed instead of wait for Germany to pay

66

How did Germany react to the French occupation of the Ruhr?

Germany responded with passive resistance, however this resulted in many acts of industrial sabotage taking place. Many German workers went on strike, however some set factories on fire and sabotaged pumps in mines, therefore flooding them. A number of strikers were shot by the French

67

What were the results of the rebellion against the French occupation of the Ruhr?

- united the German people in their hatred of the French
- strikers became the heroes of Germany for standing up to the Treaty of Versailles
- German government supported the strikers and printed more money to pay them a wage
- fewer goods were being produced in Germany
- led to hyperinflation

68

How much was £1 worth in:
a) July 1914
b) Jan 1919
c) Jan 1923
d) Nov 1923


a) 20 marks
b) 35 marks
c) 71,888 marks
d) more than 1 quadrillion

69

How did inflation benefit some people?

-businessmen who had borrowed money from the banks were able to pay off these debts
- serious food shortages led to a rise in prices of food which helped farmers
- foreigners in Germany had a huge advantage in terms of currency conversion rates

70

Who became Chancellor in the summer of 1923?

Gustav Stresemann, who began to steady things and introduced a new currency