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Flashcards in Key Terms Deck (84):
1

What is a cell?

Something that is vital to all living things
Smallest unit of life that can replicate
The “building block of life”

2

Prokaryotic cells

DNA is a circular loop
Has no membrane bound organelles
No nucleus
Size smaller than 2x10(-3)mm
When a cell wall is present it is made out of murine
Bacteria cells

3

Eukaryotic cells

Cell wall not always present
Has membrane bound organelles
Has a nucleus
Size between 1x10(-2)-1x10(-1)mm
DNA held in chromosomes

4

What is the function of ribosomes?

The place of protein synthesis

5

What is the function of mitochondria?

The site of respiration

6

What is the difference between breathing and respiration?

Breathing is a physical process whereas respiration is a chemical process

7

What is the function of a nucleus?

Controls cell
Holds DNA

8

What is the function of the cell membrane?

Controls what enters and leaves the cell

9

What is the function of the chloroplasts?

Contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis

10

What is the function of the cell wall?

Keeps the shape of the cell
Protection

11

What is the function of the cytoplasm?

Where the chemical reactions take place

12

What is the function of the vacuole?

Where sap is stored

13

What is the process called where bacteria multiply?

Simple cell division (binary fission)

14

What is asexual production?

Requires 1 parent
Produces identical cells
No mixture of genetic material
Clones
Quick

15

What is an antibiotic?

A medicine that inhabits the growth of or destroys microorganisms

16

What is an anti sceptic?

Preventing the growth of disease causing microorganisms

17

What is a disinfectant?

A chemical liquid that destroys bacteria

18

What is a stem cell?

A cell that can become any other cell

19

What is differentiation?

As organisms develop cells become specialised for a particular function

20

What is the function of the xylem?

To carry water from the roots to the leaves

21

What is the function of the phloem?

To transport food from the leaves to the rest of the plant

22

What is diffusion?

The spreading of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration down a concentration gradient, until an equilibrium is met

23

What factors effect diffusion?

Temperature
Surface area:volume
Concentration gradient

24

What is osmosis?

The movement of water from a dilute to more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane

25

What is a solvent?

The liquid in which absolute dissolves

26

What is solute?

The substance that dissolves in a liquid to form a solution

27

What is a solution?

The mixture formed when absolute has dissolved in a solvent

28

What is a partially permeable membrane?

A membrane with tiny pores that only allow certain molecules to pass

29

What does hypertonic mean?

Concentration of solutes in the solution surrounding the cell is higher than inside the cell. (Less water)

30

What does hypotonic mean?

Concentration of solutes surrounding the cell is lower than inside the cell. (More water)

31

What does isotonic mean?

Concentration of solutes in the solution surrounding the cell is the same as the inside of the cell

32

What is active transportation?

The movement of substances from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution against a concentration gradient. It is not a passive process as it goes against the concentration gradient using energy from respiration

33

How do you calculate % change?

Difference/initial

34

What is a tissue?

Group of cells working together to perform a specific job

35

What is an organ?

A group of tissues working together to perform a specific job

36

What is an organ system?

A group of organs working together to perform a specific job

37

What is muscular tissue?

Contract to bring about movement
Providing strength where required
Mitochondria will have lots of it

38

What is epithelial tissue?

Covers organs and the outside of the body to help protect the cells
The skin

39

What is glandular tissue?

Contains cells that release enzymes and hormones to help control different processes

40

What is digestion?

The break down of food molecules into smaller water soluble molecules

41

What is the mouth used for in digestion?

Food is chewed up by the teeth here and swallowed

42

What is the texting used for in digestion?

Where the faeces is stored

43

What are the salivary glands used for in digestion?

Produce saliva which contains the enzyme carbohydrase

44

What is the oesophagus used for in digestion?

The tube that connects the mouth to the stomach

45

What is the anus used for in digestion?

Faeces leaves the body here

46

What does the pancreas do in digestion?

This organ produces carbohydrase, lipase and protease enzymes and releases them into small intestine

47

What does the fall bladder do in digestion?

This organ stores bile

48

What does the stomach do in digestion?

This organ contains protease enzyme and also hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria

49

What does the small intestine do in digestion?

It is where absorption of the food molecules into the blood stream takes place

50

What does the liver do in digestion?

This organ produces bile which is used to break down large fat globules into smaller droplets

51

What does the large intestine do in digestion?

Water from the waste food is absorbed here

52

What are enzymes?

Biological catalysts which are used to speed up chemical reactions and are made of proteins. They are involved in respiration and digestion as well as photosynthesis for plants

53

What is the active site?

The section of the enzyme that the reactants fit in to

54

What is the enzyme substrate complex?

The combined structure of an enzyme when a complimentary substrate fits into its active site

55

What is the substrate?

A molecule upon which the enzyme acts

56

What is a product?

The molecule produced after a reaction

57

What is protease?

Produced in the stomach
Substrates- proteins
Products- amino acids
Optimum pH-2

58

What is carbohydrase (pancreatic amylase)

Produced in the pancreas
Substrates- carbohydrates
Products- sugars
Optimum pH- 7

59

What is lipase?

Produced in the small intestine
Substrates- fats (lipids)
Products- glycerol and fatty acids
Optimum pH- 7

60

What does the right ventricle do?

Pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs to be oxygenated

61

What does the left ventricle do?

Pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body/muscles

62

What is cardiac output?

The amount of blood the heart pumps in 1 minute

63

What is stroke volume?

How much blood is pumped out the heart with each beat

64

What factors affect heart rate?

Smoking
Diet
Exercise
Cholesterol
Alcohol
Heart conditions
Feelings
Age

65

What is blood?

A liquid tissue consisting of plasma, in which the RBC, white blood cells and platelets are suspended

66

What is plasma?

A straw coloured liquid that contains: blood cells, hormones, dissolved substances, dissolved waste substances
Makes up 50% of your blood

67

What are red blood cells

Transport oxygen for respiration
Contain haemoglobin
No nucleus
Biconcave- maximise SA:V
Small and flexible

68

What are white blood cells

Fight infection
Two types:
Phagocyte- engulfs the pathogen
Lymphocytes- produce antibodies

69

What are platelets?

Small fragments of cells
No nucleus
Forms clots and scans at wounds
Prevents blood loss when vessels are damaged
Suspended in the plasma

70

What are arteries?

Carry blood away from heart
Oxygenated
High pressure
Exception pulmonary artery

71

What are capillaries?

Microscopic vessels that form networks around organs
Blood under very low pressure

72

What are veins?

Carries blood towards heart
Deoxygenated
High pressure not as high as arteries
Valves to prevent back flow

73

Define health

A state of physical and/or mental well being

74

What is a risk factor?

Any factor, attribute or characteristic that increases the likelihood of developing a disease

75

What is cancer?

A group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth

76

What is a pathogen?

A micro-organism that causes disease

77

What is an anti-toxin?

A protein that binds to toxins produced by lymphocytes

78

What is a vaccine?

A dead or inactive form of a pathogen

79

What is a medicine

A chemical substance that is used in the diagnosis, cure, treatment or prevention of disease

80

What is humanisation?

The modification of antibodies before their use

81

What is mass transport?

The bulk movement of materials from exchange surfaces to cells

82

What is transpiration?

The loss of water (evaporation) from the stomata

83

What is translocation?

The movement of sugars through the plant

84

What is the equation for photosynthesis?

Carbon dioxide + water —