Flashcards in Key Terms Deck (84):
What is a cell?
Something that is vital to all living things
Smallest unit of life that can replicate
The “building block of life”
DNA is a circular loop
Has no membrane bound organelles
Size smaller than 2x10(-3)mm
When a cell wall is present it is made out of murine
Cell wall not always present
Has membrane bound organelles
Has a nucleus
Size between 1x10(-2)-1x10(-1)mm
DNA held in chromosomes
What is the function of ribosomes?
The place of protein synthesis
What is the function of mitochondria?
The site of respiration
What is the difference between breathing and respiration?
Breathing is a physical process whereas respiration is a chemical process
What is the function of a nucleus?
What is the function of the cell membrane?
Controls what enters and leaves the cell
What is the function of the chloroplasts?
Contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis
What is the function of the cell wall?
Keeps the shape of the cell
What is the function of the cytoplasm?
Where the chemical reactions take place
What is the function of the vacuole?
Where sap is stored
What is the process called where bacteria multiply?
Simple cell division (binary fission)
What is asexual production?
Requires 1 parent
Produces identical cells
No mixture of genetic material
What is an antibiotic?
A medicine that inhabits the growth of or destroys microorganisms
What is an anti sceptic?
Preventing the growth of disease causing microorganisms
What is a disinfectant?
A chemical liquid that destroys bacteria
What is a stem cell?
A cell that can become any other cell
What is differentiation?
As organisms develop cells become specialised for a particular function
What is the function of the xylem?
To carry water from the roots to the leaves
What is the function of the phloem?
To transport food from the leaves to the rest of the plant
What is diffusion?
The spreading of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration down a concentration gradient, until an equilibrium is met
What factors effect diffusion?
What is osmosis?
The movement of water from a dilute to more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane
What is a solvent?
The liquid in which absolute dissolves
What is solute?
The substance that dissolves in a liquid to form a solution
What is a solution?
The mixture formed when absolute has dissolved in a solvent
What is a partially permeable membrane?
A membrane with tiny pores that only allow certain molecules to pass
What does hypertonic mean?
Concentration of solutes in the solution surrounding the cell is higher than inside the cell. (Less water)
What does hypotonic mean?
Concentration of solutes surrounding the cell is lower than inside the cell. (More water)
What does isotonic mean?
Concentration of solutes in the solution surrounding the cell is the same as the inside of the cell
What is active transportation?
The movement of substances from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution against a concentration gradient. It is not a passive process as it goes against the concentration gradient using energy from respiration
How do you calculate % change?
What is a tissue?
Group of cells working together to perform a specific job
What is an organ?
A group of tissues working together to perform a specific job
What is an organ system?
A group of organs working together to perform a specific job
What is muscular tissue?
Contract to bring about movement
Providing strength where required
Mitochondria will have lots of it
What is epithelial tissue?
Covers organs and the outside of the body to help protect the cells
What is glandular tissue?
Contains cells that release enzymes and hormones to help control different processes
What is digestion?
The break down of food molecules into smaller water soluble molecules
What is the mouth used for in digestion?
Food is chewed up by the teeth here and swallowed
What is the texting used for in digestion?
Where the faeces is stored
What are the salivary glands used for in digestion?
Produce saliva which contains the enzyme carbohydrase
What is the oesophagus used for in digestion?
The tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
What is the anus used for in digestion?
Faeces leaves the body here
What does the pancreas do in digestion?
This organ produces carbohydrase, lipase and protease enzymes and releases them into small intestine
What does the fall bladder do in digestion?
This organ stores bile
What does the stomach do in digestion?
This organ contains protease enzyme and also hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria
What does the small intestine do in digestion?
It is where absorption of the food molecules into the blood stream takes place
What does the liver do in digestion?
This organ produces bile which is used to break down large fat globules into smaller droplets
What does the large intestine do in digestion?
Water from the waste food is absorbed here
What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts which are used to speed up chemical reactions and are made of proteins. They are involved in respiration and digestion as well as photosynthesis for plants
What is the active site?
The section of the enzyme that the reactants fit in to
What is the enzyme substrate complex?
The combined structure of an enzyme when a complimentary substrate fits into its active site
What is the substrate?
A molecule upon which the enzyme acts
What is a product?
The molecule produced after a reaction
What is protease?
Produced in the stomach
Products- amino acids
What is carbohydrase (pancreatic amylase)
Produced in the pancreas
Optimum pH- 7
What is lipase?
Produced in the small intestine
Substrates- fats (lipids)
Products- glycerol and fatty acids
Optimum pH- 7
What does the right ventricle do?
Pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs to be oxygenated
What does the left ventricle do?
Pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body/muscles
What is cardiac output?
The amount of blood the heart pumps in 1 minute
What is stroke volume?
How much blood is pumped out the heart with each beat
What factors affect heart rate?
What is blood?
A liquid tissue consisting of plasma, in which the RBC, white blood cells and platelets are suspended
What is plasma?
A straw coloured liquid that contains: blood cells, hormones, dissolved substances, dissolved waste substances
Makes up 50% of your blood
What are red blood cells
Transport oxygen for respiration
Biconcave- maximise SA:V
Small and flexible
What are white blood cells
Phagocyte- engulfs the pathogen
Lymphocytes- produce antibodies
What are platelets?
Small fragments of cells
Forms clots and scans at wounds
Prevents blood loss when vessels are damaged
Suspended in the plasma
What are arteries?
Carry blood away from heart
Exception pulmonary artery
What are capillaries?
Microscopic vessels that form networks around organs
Blood under very low pressure
What are veins?
Carries blood towards heart
High pressure not as high as arteries
Valves to prevent back flow
A state of physical and/or mental well being
What is a risk factor?
Any factor, attribute or characteristic that increases the likelihood of developing a disease
What is cancer?
A group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth
What is a pathogen?
A micro-organism that causes disease
What is an anti-toxin?
A protein that binds to toxins produced by lymphocytes
What is a vaccine?
A dead or inactive form of a pathogen
What is a medicine
A chemical substance that is used in the diagnosis, cure, treatment or prevention of disease
What is humanisation?
The modification of antibodies before their use
What is mass transport?
The bulk movement of materials from exchange surfaces to cells
What is transpiration?
The loss of water (evaporation) from the stomata
What is translocation?
The movement of sugars through the plant