After placing the transducer on the patient, you should always do a quick ___ before taking images.
How should you take a survey of the abdominal aorta?
begins from the anterior approach in the saggittal scan plane and then surveyed in the transverse scan plane from the diaphragm to the bifurcation
the right renal artery is ___ to the IVC
what are the landmarks for spleen?
SMA, splenic vein, portal splenic confluence
The amount of pressure exerted on the skin surface by the transducer can affect the ____
left renal vein comes off the ivc in ___
An injury that results in restricted work or time away from work or that involves symptoms that last for 7 days or more and injuries that include the muscles, tendons, and joints
Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WRMSD)
Displays the TGC information
in order to see the splenic vein, you must be in what scan plane?
Imaging within vessels
tissue composing an organ
Radiologists consult for imaging diagnoses using PACS to view images transmitted from site of origin
Place cursors for distance measurements
what is this?
a cyst with smooth borders and accoustic enhancement- poterior to the cyst there is a brightening (also called a through transmission)
Multiple pathological conditions that may be indicated by the ultrasound findings and reported as such by the interpreting physician
the celiac artery and SMA are ___ in relation to the AO
the left renal vein sits ___ to the aorta and ___ to the SMA
Starting point from which the examination will be performed
Imaging preset/ model
The science or study of work
When a patient is getting an abdominal aorta scan, they should...
fast for at least 8 hours prior to the study
when taking an image of the proximal segment of the aorta or IVC, you want to as the patient to ____
either take a deep breath or push stomach out
external iliac arteries bring blood to the
Inflammation of the tendon
Process of inserting something into or operating on the body through a needle puncture, an incision, or a natural orifice
landmark for mid ao in trans
The only people who can legally render a diagnosis are?
Which directional position is optimal for scanning the abdominal aorta?
Appropriate calculations package based on imaging preset
What is RSI?
repetitive strain injury
Reverse the scan direction of the displayed image Image will change from either a right to left direction or up and down direction
Imagining controls such as body pattern, Doppler, power Doppler, pulsed wave, m mode, and screen monitor controls
Enables improved image resolution as images are stored in digital format and manipulated by software controls
PACS - Picture Archiving and Communications System
Ultrasound system controls including (1) primary imaging, (2) calculation, and (3) additional controls
Inflammation of the bursa
Name 7 things that MUST be documented on the image documentation
-patient name and ID number -date and time -scanning site (hospital name) -name or initials of sonographer -patient position -scanning plane -area of interest (gen- aorta and specific prox ao sag)
Sonographers written summary of ultrasound findings using sonographic terminology- never a diagnosis
Access s reference manual for ultrasound system
An agency within the United States dept of labor that is designed to protect health care workers from major blood borne diseases and maintain healthful working conditions for the nations’s workforce
(OSHA) Occupational Safety and Health Administration
landmark for prox ao in sag?
lots of liver, area before the celiac trunk - near xyphoid bone
major blood vessel of the body that is returning blood from inferior portion of body to the right atrium of the heart
Protects patients from infection and prevents the spread of pathogens
What is MSI?
musculoskeletal strain injury
Patient identification data, clinical symptoms, the examination requested, and the reason why
Ultrasound Request Form
Customizes imaging settings and measurements; demonstrates proper use of ultrasound system
Clinical applications specialist
What is the order to document abnormal findings?
1) determine number of findings 2) determine composition 3) pathology images
Controls such as imaging preset, frequency, depth, and time-gain compensation (TGC) that directly affect image quality
Primary Imaging Controls
-Guides the cursor on the screen -Position measurement cursors during freeze mode -Changes scan area for the sector size and color box size for Doppler and color Doppler application
Extension of the shoulder and arm away from the body
3 sonographic criteria to be considered a true cyst:
1) mass must appear anechoic with no internal echoes 2) mass walls must be defined, thin, and smooth 3) mass must exhibit posterior through transmission or increased echo amplitude visualized posterior to a structure to a structure that does not attenuate (looks like light beam)
when the SMV and splenic vein meet, they join to become
portal splenic confluence
inferior to celiac trunk is __
Blood borne pathogen that requires standard precautions to reduce exposure risk
Hepatitis B (HBV) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Performed under surgical conditions
Intraoperative and laparoscopic
describe the borders
irregular border cyst
what is this?
acoustic shadows- echo drop off posterior to a structure that attenuates the sound beam - considered a type of sonographic artifact
this is a complex mass with anechoic tissue and heterogeneous solid tissue (not all one smooth echo texture)
When bringing a patient back to the exam room, you should verify their identity by?
Checking ID bracelet ask patient to verify name and DOB -you should confirm that the name and DOB match the ID bracelet
Ultrasound professional responsible for performing and recording ultrasound studies for physician interpretation
Entrapment of the median nerve as it runs through the carpal bones of the wrist
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)
A germ free condition
Returning echoes from deep in the body are amplified so information on deeper structures can be received -equalize differences in received echo amplitudes due to reflector depth
Time-gain compensation (TGC)
the renal artery is __ to celiac trunk?
Sonologist’s (radiologist/ physician) formal report of ultrasound findings
Interpretive Report (Final report)
Performs installation of ultrasound system or imaging site
Ultrasound Field Service Engineer
What is RMI?
repetitive motion injury
what is the most notable artery in mid trans?
renal arteries branch off from the __ aspect of the aorta
the diaphragm moves ___ when patient takes deep breath
describe a complex mass
walls vary from well defined and smooth to poorly defined and irregular
A specific type of tendonitis involving the thumb, believed to be a result of repeated gripping of the transducer
De Quervain’s Disease
Store recently scanned image frames into system memory before freeze key is depressed Images can be reviewed using this control
Adjusts image size
the celiac trunk branches into
common hepatic artery left gastric artery splenic artery
solid structure (tissue)
landmark for prox ao in trans?
lotss of liver, ao should be at the bottom of the screen
Erase cursors, outlines, and measurement results
Result of chronic stress over time
Because the aorta is retroperitoneal and is one of the deepest structures of the body, the transducer of choice is usually a ___ MHz curvilinear. If the patient is very thin, a ___MHz transducer may be the best choice.
3.0-3.5 MHz 5.0 MHz
Compilation of patient information including medical history, results of physical examination, patient symptoms, and lab test results
landmark for mid ao in sag?
just superior to the SMA
Results of the physical examination, including a listing of the patient’s symptoms
Intervertebral disc degeneration that results from awkward and static postures, bending, and twisting while scanning
What are alternative scanning positions for viewing the aorta?
left/right lateral decubitus left/right posterior oblique sitting semi erect to erect
Better tissue resolution of superficial structures is attained with higher frequencies. Lower imaging frequency is used for deeper structures
Activate programmed storage device to store frozen image The system will remain in freeze until image is stored
“Freeze” image and suspend real time, press button to unfreeze image and resume real time
the rt and lt internal iliacs are also known as the
Keyboard on the ultrasound system that allows alphabetic and numeric characters to be entered for the patient’s examination
Electronic system that stores patient demographic information and medical records
Hospital Information System (HIS)
Display two images side by side for comparison
Dual image and/or left/right key
Always ensure that the ___ are set so that the table or stretcher do not move while a patients is getting on
a mass or multiple masses circumscribed to a specific area
describe the borders
smooth border cyst
landmark that separates the left lobe of the liver from the caudate lobe
Electronic, radiology-specific network that supports imaging, reporting, and relevant patient data.
Radiology Information System (RIS)
Software-based control system for image settings and measurements
Position the focal zone to the desired scan depth
Focal zone position and focal number
the internal iliac arteries bring blood to the
pelvis and uterus
What are the 3 D’s of deviation?
1) Differentiating abnormal echo patterns from normal echo patterns 2) Documenting any differences in echo pattern appearance 3) Describing any difference in echo pattern appearance using sonographic technology
where does the ao originate?
left ventricle of heart
Outline for curve or circumference measurements
Complete measurements and display results to calculate volume measurements
Physician responsible for providing final, legal, and interpretive report (which may include differential diagnoses) of ultrasound findings
Always measure at a __ angle of the vessel
A computer based version of a patients medical information
Electron medical record (EMR)
3 types of compositions of a mass
solid cystic complex