Key Terms - Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Key Terms - Chapter 18 Deck (27):
1

Abdominocentesis

Obtaining free fluid by surgically puncturing the abdominal wall (within the peritoneal space) with a needle
Other names: Abdominal tap, peritoneal tap, paracentesis, belly tap

2

Anorexia

Loss of appetite or absence of food, especially when prolonged

3

Arthrocentesis

Aspiration of fluid from a joint

4

Coupage

Act of striking the chest wall rhythmically with cupped hands. Cupping the hands creates an air cushion on impact so that tenacious mucus is dislodged

5

Cystocentesis

Method of obtaining a urine sample by inserting a needle through the abdominal wall and into the urinary bladder and withdrawing urine from the bladder into a syringe (bladder may be located by palpation or ultrasound guidance)

6

Diagnostic peritoneal lavage

Insertion of fluid into the peritoneal cavity; fluid is allowed to dwell for a short time and then is drained. Gross, microscopic, and chemical analyses are performed on the returned fluid

7

Extravasation

Leakage of something out of its container or normal location, such as a drug out of a vein

8

Foley catheter

Catheter threaded through the urethra to the bladder, where it is held in place with a tiny, inflated balloon

9

Hematoma

Blood clot

10

Hemolysis

Destruction of RBCs with liberation of hemoglobin. (In microbiology, clearing of media around a bacterial colony)

11

Inflammation

Response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain, swelling, redness, and heat.

12

Intraosseous

Administration of a drug or fluid into the bone

13

Leukocytosis

Condition characterized by an abnormally high total number of circulating leukocytes. Neutrophilia indicates increased numbers of circulating neutrophils.

14

Neutropenia

Abnormal decrease in the number of neutrophils (the most common type of WBCs in the blood

15

Osmolality

Concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in osmoles or milliosmoles per kg

16

Pancytopenia

A decrease to below normal in the concentration of the three major blood cell types: RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.

17

Percutaneous

Term that refers to something passing through the skin

18

Phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein

19

Pleural effusion

Fluid buildup in the space surrounding the lungs within the thorax

20

Pneumothorax

Abnormal accumulation of air in the space between the rib cage and the lung. This abnormal air pocket compresses the lung, resulting in respiratory distress. The lung may collapse. This condition may be caused by injury to lung tissue, rupture of air-filled pulmonary cysts, or puncture of the chest wall.

21

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

An in vitro technique that is used to rapidly synthesize large quantities of a given deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) segment. This involves separating the DNA into its two complementary strands, binding a primer to each single strand at the end of the given DNA segment where synthesis will start, using DNA polymerase to synthesize two-stranded DNA from each single strand, and repeating the process.

22

Rumen

The first chamber of the ruminant digestive tract; used for storage of ingested food and initial digestion of protein and simple carbohydrates

23

Thoracocentesis

A procedure in which air or fluid is removed from the chest (pleural space) using a syringe and needle aseptically

24

Thrombocytopenia

Occurs as a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood

25

Thrombophlebitis

Inflammation of the vein associated with a thrombus

26

Thrombosis

Clotting of blood within a vessel that results in obstruction of blood flow

27

Vasodilatation

Dilatation of the blood vessels; the opposite of vasoconstriction