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Introduction to Psychology (PSYC1430) > Key Words/Concepts & Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Key Words/Concepts & Definitions Deck (33):
1

What is psychology?

The scientific study of behaviour and the mind

2

What is behaviour?

Actions and responses that we can directly observe

3

What is the mind?

Internal states and processes (e.g. thoughts and feelings) that cannot be seen directly and that must be inferred from observable, measurable responses

4

What is a social construct?

A collection of characteristics and traits that are so often presented in society that their origins are lost in time and never questioned

5

What is basic research?

Research that reflects the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake

6

What is applied research?

Research that is designed to solve specific, practical problems

7

What is biology?

The scientific study of life processes and biological structures

8

What is anthropology?

The scientific study of cultural origins, evolution and variations

9

What is sociology?

The scientific study of human social relations and systems

10

What is computer science?

The scientific study of information processing and manipulations of data

11

What is medicine?

The scientific study of health and the causes and treatment of diseases

12

What are hormones?

Chemicals released by glands in the body

13

What are mind-body interaactions?

The relations between mental processes in te brain and the functioning of other bodily systems

14

What is mind-body dualism?

The belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body

15

What is monism?

The belief that mind and body are one and that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity

16

What is empiricism?

All ideas and knowledge are gained empirically (through the senses)

17

What is physiology?

An area of biology that examines bodily functioning

18

What is psychophysics?

The study of how psychologically experienced sensations depend on the characteristics of physical stimuli

19

What is structuralism?

The analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements

20

What is functionalism?

The belief that psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure

21

What is the psychodynamic perspective?

Searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality (our unique pattern of traits, emotions and motives), emphasising the role of unconcious processes

22

What are phobias?

Intense unrealistic fears

23

What is free association?

A technique by which patients expressed any thoughts that came to mind

24

What is psychoanalysis?

The analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psyhological forces

A theory and form of psychotherapy

25

What are defence mechanisms?

Psychological techniques that help us cope with anxiety and the pain of traumatic experiences

26

What are object relations theories?

Focus on how early experiences with caregivers shape the views that people form of themselves and others

27

What is the bevavioural perspective?

Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions

28

What is behaviourism?

A school of thought that emphasises environmental control of behaviour through learning

29

What is behaviour modification?

Techniques aimed at decreasing problem behaviours and increasing positive behaviours bby manipulating environmental factors

30

What is cognitive behaviourism?

Proposes that learning experiences and the environment influence our expectations and other thoughts, and in turn our thoughts influene how we behave

31

What is the humanistic perspective (or humanism)?

Emphasised free will, personal growth and the attempt to find meaning in one's existence

32

What is self-actualisation?

The reaching of one's individual potential

33

What is belongingness according to Maslow (1954)?

Our basic human need for social acceptance and companionship