Flashcards in Key Words/Concepts & Definitions Deck (33):
What is psychology?
The scientific study of behaviour and the mind
What is behaviour?
Actions and responses that we can directly observe
What is the mind?
Internal states and processes (e.g. thoughts and feelings) that cannot be seen directly and that must be inferred from observable, measurable responses
What is a social construct?
A collection of characteristics and traits that are so often presented in society that their origins are lost in time and never questioned
What is basic research?
Research that reflects the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake
What is applied research?
Research that is designed to solve specific, practical problems
What is biology?
The scientific study of life processes and biological structures
What is anthropology?
The scientific study of cultural origins, evolution and variations
What is sociology?
The scientific study of human social relations and systems
What is computer science?
The scientific study of information processing and manipulations of data
What is medicine?
The scientific study of health and the causes and treatment of diseases
What are hormones?
Chemicals released by glands in the body
What are mind-body interaactions?
The relations between mental processes in te brain and the functioning of other bodily systems
What is mind-body dualism?
The belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body
What is monism?
The belief that mind and body are one and that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity
What is empiricism?
All ideas and knowledge are gained empirically (through the senses)
What is physiology?
An area of biology that examines bodily functioning
What is psychophysics?
The study of how psychologically experienced sensations depend on the characteristics of physical stimuli
What is structuralism?
The analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements
What is functionalism?
The belief that psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure
What is the psychodynamic perspective?
Searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality (our unique pattern of traits, emotions and motives), emphasising the role of unconcious processes
What are phobias?
Intense unrealistic fears
What is free association?
A technique by which patients expressed any thoughts that came to mind
What is psychoanalysis?
The analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psyhological forces
A theory and form of psychotherapy
What are defence mechanisms?
Psychological techniques that help us cope with anxiety and the pain of traumatic experiences
What are object relations theories?
Focus on how early experiences with caregivers shape the views that people form of themselves and others
What is the bevavioural perspective?
Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions
What is behaviourism?
A school of thought that emphasises environmental control of behaviour through learning
What is behaviour modification?
Techniques aimed at decreasing problem behaviours and increasing positive behaviours bby manipulating environmental factors
What is cognitive behaviourism?
Proposes that learning experiences and the environment influence our expectations and other thoughts, and in turn our thoughts influene how we behave
What is the humanistic perspective (or humanism)?
Emphasised free will, personal growth and the attempt to find meaning in one's existence
What is self-actualisation?
The reaching of one's individual potential