Flashcards in Keywords Deck (111):
Definition: The process of removing or hiding unnecessary detail so that only the important points remain.
Definition: Information represented by only two values (e.g. a voltage or no voltage, on or off).
Definition: Something that is recognised as being capable of an independent existence is uniquely identified and about which data is stored.
Definition: Something that can take only the values true or false; named after English mathematician George Boole.
This operator just swaps 1s and 0s.
Integrated Development Environment
Definition: A package that helps programmers to develop program code. It develop program codes. It has a number of useful tools, including a source code editor and a debugger.
Definition: Information represented by certain fixed values. (E.g. high, medium or low.) Any signal between these values would be meaningless and not used. Sending and receiving mechanisms do not have to be as accurate as for analogue communication.
Definition: Using signals or information represented by a quantity (e.g. and electric voltage or current) that is continuously variable. Changes in the information being represented are indicated by changes in voltage.
Definition: The basic combination of bits used to represent an item of information. A byte typically consists of 8 bits.
Definition: A whole number (e.g3, 6, 9).
Definition: An operation done on all the bits of a binary value in which a specific number of moves them placed to either the left or right.
(Repetitive strain injury)
Definition: Damage caused to the muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves or joints, usually because of repeating the same action.
Examples: Typing or using the mouse for extended periods. Using a poorly designed keyboard.
Definition: A set of rules that people try to abide by out of respect for other people around them.
Examples: Using the correct format in writing an e-mail for example capital letters in the proper place, correct spelling and punctuation.
Definition: Materials that are available for anyone to use for any purpose (not subject to laws of copyright)
Examples: Any software written before 1974 is public domain. The works of Shakespeare and Beethoven.
Definition: Built-in storage designed to be directly accessed by the central processing unit (CPU).
Examples: Random Access Memory (RAM) and cache are both examples of a primary storage device.
Definition: A based-16 number system. There are 16 digits and the place values increase in power of 16.
Definition: The defined list of character recognised by a computer’s hardware and software.
Definition: To enter data in to a computer.
Definition: To change the meaning or format of some data.
Definition: To display or output data that has been processed (or has been stored).
Definition: Programs that give instructions to a computer and which allow the user to carry out different tasks.
Von Neumann architecture
Definition: Computer system design in which the program is stored in memory with the data.
Central processing unit
Definition: Hardware device that carries out the processing in a computer.
Definition: A temporary store for a data and instruction (programs).
Definition: A group of connections between devices in a computer.
Definition: Sequence of steps carried out repeatedly by a CPU.
Definition: The time delay between the moment something is initiated and the moment it becomes detectable.
(Internet Service Provider)
Definition: A company that provides Internet access to its customers.
Definition: When the CPU sends data to the memory to be stored at a given address.
Definition: When the CPU retrieves the data stored at a given address.
Definition: Memory that is erased when the power is turned off.
Definition: Memory that is not lost when the power is off.
Read-only memory (ROM)
Definition: Memory that cannot be altered and is not lost when the power is turned off.
Definition: Memory used to make up for the difference in speed between two internal components.
Definition: An electronic device inside a CPU that ‘ticks’ at regular intervals and is used to synchronise the action of the other part of the CPU.
Definition: The number of wire that make up a bus-this determines the range of binary numbers that can be transmitted.
Definition: Any kind of permanent storage to which the contents of ROM/RAM are copied (usually a hard disk, optical or solid-state device).
Definition: Secondary storage that works by magnetising parts of a substance as north and south poles to represent binary 1s and 0s
Definition: Secondary storage that works by storing charge (electrons)
Definition: Copying someone else’s work and presenting it as your own.
Definition: A program designed to cause a computer to malfunction or stop working altogether.
Definition: Tricking someone for personal gain or to damage them.
Definition: Any process that hides the true physical nature of a computing resource, making it look different, usually to simplify the way it is accessed.
Definition: Someone who gains unauthorised access to a computer in order to obtain data stored on it.
Definition: A crime that involves someone pretending to be another person in order to steal money or obtain other benefits.
Definition: A table showing all possible combinations of the input and output of an operator.
Definition: An electronic circuit that has inputs and outputs that follow one of the Boolean operators.
Definition: The order in which you apply the operators (including logical operators in a mathematical equation.
Definition: The algorithm that runs the OS uses to allow each running process to use the CPU.
Definition: The algorithm the OS uses to move programs from RAM to disk and back again when needed once main memory is full.
Definition: Processes that run apparently at the same time are described as being concurrent.
(Universal Serial Bus)
Definition: A standard method of connecting devices such as keyboards and printers to a computer.
Definition: The process of proving to a computer system who you are (e.g. using a username and password).
Definition: The way the user interacts with the operating system.
Definition: A utility that moves file clusters on a disk so they are closer to each other in order to speed up disk access.
Definition: A system in which all computer programs and data is stored on a central server.
‘What if? Question
Definition: Running a computer model with a give set of input to see what the model produces as an output or prediction.
Definition: A type of algorithm capable of finding a solution to a problem quickly and easily, by using combination of trial and error and educated guesswork to cut corners and eliminate less likely alternatives. Heuristic algorithms don’t always find the best soone lution but they will usually find that works.
Monte Carlo methods
Definition: Carrying out a statistical analysis of a number of random sample in order to obtain approximate solutions to a problem. The larger the number of samples used, the more accurate the results us likely to be.
Definition: Processing information in a similar way to human brains, learning, and adapting over time. This makes them useful tools for solving pattern recognition medical diagnosis and quality control, which computers are normally not very good at.
Definition: The list of all possible commands a particular CPU knows how to carry out
Definition: A program that converts source code into machine code.
Definition: Short for “Picture element”, the smallest single point of colour in graphic image.
Definition: The number of pixels per inch when the image is displayed (for example, on a monitor or on paper.
Definition: Terabyte or 1000 gigabyte.
Definition: Taking measurements of the sound wave at regular but distinct intervals of time (e.g. 44.100 samples per second).
Definition: The binary code representing each of the instruction in the instruction set.
Definition: A low-level language written using mnemonics.
Definition: A form of internet fraud that aims to steal valuable information such as usernames and passwords.
Low-level programming language
Definition: A programing language that is closely related to the CPU’s machine code
Definition: A short, simple, acronym that represents each of the instructions in a CPU’s instruction set, E.G. LDR (Load register), STR (store) and CMP (compare).
Definition: A translator that converts high-level language source code into object code, often machine code. The source code is translated all at once and saved to be executed later.
Definition: A translator that converts high-level language source code into object code, often machine code. The source code is translated and executed on line at a time.
Definition: The amount of data that can fir through an Internet connection. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bps).
Definition: The translated source code. Often this will be machine code, but might also be an intermediate code, which has to be further translated before it can be execute
Definition: A system designed to prevent unauthorised access to your computer when connected to a network.
Definition: Software that can be installed on your computer without your knowledge, which collects personal and private information.
Definition: An arrangement of computers and other devices connected together to share resources and data
Local area network (LAN)
Definition: A local area network that covers a relatively small geographical area, often a single site.
Wireless local area network (WLAN)
Definition: A local area network in which connected devices use high frequency radio waves to communicate.
Wide area network (WAN)
Definition: A network that covers a large geographical area. It connects together two or more LANs and is usually under collective ownership. The largest wide area network is the internet.
Definition: A network that has at least on server to provide services to the client computers.
Definition: For security, data is translated into a secret code according to a set of rules in a special “key”.
Definition: A network that does not have any centralised servers. Each computer in the network can act as client and server.
Definition: Gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights regarding that work for a certain period of time.
Definition: Describes how the devices on a network are connected together.
Definition: Software that is designed to cause problems for users.
Definition: A worldwide system of interconnected networks that enables information to be exchanged and shared.
Definition: A small piece of hardware that connects to a computer and has uses including data storage and picking up Bluetooth and 3G signals.
Definition: The means by which data is transmitted between devices on a network. Coaxial cable, fibre-optic cable and microwaves are all forms of communication media
Definition: A set of rules that govern how communications on a network should be formatted and what data they should include.
Definition: Having unauthorised sight of data being sent from on computer to another over a network. This is covered more fully in the later section on technical weakness.
Definition: An error detection technique. A mathematical formula is applied to the data and resulting numerical value is transmitted with the data. The recipient computer applies the same formula to the received data and then compares the checksum sent with the data to calculated checksum. If the checksum do not match, the data is likely to have been corrupted and the recipient computer request the data again.
Definition: A small quantity of data being sent thought a network. The packet is labelled with the sender’s address (source), the recipient’s address (destination), how many packets are being transmitted and the position of this packet in the complete message.
Definition: Powerful computer system that store web pages and any multimedia that the pages might contain.
Definition: Activities designed to protect a network and its data from threats such as viruses, hacker’s attack, denial of serve attacks, data interception and theft, and equipment
Definition: A copy of data that is made in case the original data is lost or damaged. The backup can be used to restore the original.
Definition: Storing data on another device, such as a CD or USB pen.
Denial of service (DoS)
Definition: An attack on a network that attempts to prevent legitimate users from accessing its services.
Definition: This determines which users have access to which data, and what they are allowed to do with it
Definition: Controlling access to critical parts of a network using physical methods (such as locked doors) rather than software
Definition: Any kind of malicious attack on a network- connect device
Definition: Gaining access to information by watching someone enter it into a computer system
Definition: Software that has not had the latest security updates applied to it, making it vulnerable to attack.
Definition: A computer program (the code) that has been written in such a way that it creates a security issue that may be taken advantage of to gain access to the computer system or data within it.
Definition: Testing each block of code as it is completed to ensure the code works as expected.
Definition: A record of activities that have taken place on a computer system. This record is generated automatically and will record what has happened and who or what made the change.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Definition: An organisation that provides its customers with a connection to the internet.
Definition: A piece of networking hardware used to forward packets of data from one network to another.
HyperText Markup Language
Definition: Essentially text documents that contains any text to be displayed along with:
Detail of how the text should be formatted (e.g. font size, colour etec.):
Details of any hyperlinks and where the links to using a URL;
Definition: An all-encompassing term referring to the hardware, software and infrastructure that underpin current and emerging computer system.