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Flashcards in Kidney Deck (18):
1

parts of the urinary system

ureters x 2 (can get stones at kinks), bladder, urethra, kidneys x 2

2

fxns of kidney

waste removal, water balance, electrolyte balance, Long term BP (Guyton's hypothesis), endocrine (RENIN + ERYTHROPOIETIN)

3

Name the 2 poles of the glomerulus

urinary + vascular poles

4

describe bowman's capsule

simple squamous epithelium (PARIETAL EPITHELIUM) --> visceral epithelium (overlaid by podocytes)

5

spaces bw podocyte interdigitating spaces?

filtration slits

6

what is special about the glomerular capillaries?

have fenestrated endotheliums

7

describe the filtration membrane in the glomerulus

fenestrated glomerular capillaries --> fused capillary/podocyte BM --> podocyte filtration slits

8

where else can you find fused BM other than in kidney?

lung, cornea

9

describe the area around the vascular pole

afferent arteriole, surrounded by JG cells (specialized muscle cells whcih have renin granules), mesangium (LACIS CELLS) - produce erythropoietin, and the macula densa in the DCT

10

describe what happens in RAAS

low blood pressure --> low salt in macula densa --> signal JG cell to release renin

11

ANP effect on afferent/efferent arteriole

dilate afferent, constrict efferent (increase RBF to decrease BP)

12

ANG 2 effect on afferent arteriole?

vasoconstrict (decrease RBF to increase BP)

13

how to distinguish bw PCT and DCT?

DCT: basal membrane infolding. PCT: brush border (increase SA for Na absorption + taller cells)

14

epithelium type of PCT/DCT?

simple cuboidal

15

serosa vs adventitia?

mucus secretion vs support

16

Ureter: describe the 1) mucosa, 2) submucosa, 3) muscularis externa, 4) adventitia/serosa?

1) trasitional epithelia + lamina propria
2)
3)inner oblique, middle circular, outer longitudinal smooth muscle
4) adventitia w/ some serosa

17

Bladder: describe the 1) mucosa, 2) submucosa, 3) muscularis externa, 4) adventitia/serosa?

1)trasitional epith + lamina propria
2)
3) thick smooth muscle layer with no distinct orientation of muscle fibres until neck of bladder (becomes circular at internal urinary sphincter)
4) adventitia, some serosa

18

Urethra: describe the 1) mucosa, 2) submucosa, 3) muscularis externa, 4) adventitia/serosa?

1) transitional epith --> pseudostratified columnar --> stratified squamous

(prostatic --> membranous --> bulbous + spongy)