Flashcards in Kidney Deck (18):
parts of the urinary system
ureters x 2 (can get stones at kinks), bladder, urethra, kidneys x 2
fxns of kidney
waste removal, water balance, electrolyte balance, Long term BP (Guyton's hypothesis), endocrine (RENIN + ERYTHROPOIETIN)
Name the 2 poles of the glomerulus
urinary + vascular poles
describe bowman's capsule
simple squamous epithelium (PARIETAL EPITHELIUM) --> visceral epithelium (overlaid by podocytes)
spaces bw podocyte interdigitating spaces?
what is special about the glomerular capillaries?
have fenestrated endotheliums
describe the filtration membrane in the glomerulus
fenestrated glomerular capillaries --> fused capillary/podocyte BM --> podocyte filtration slits
where else can you find fused BM other than in kidney?
describe the area around the vascular pole
afferent arteriole, surrounded by JG cells (specialized muscle cells whcih have renin granules), mesangium (LACIS CELLS) - produce erythropoietin, and the macula densa in the DCT
describe what happens in RAAS
low blood pressure --> low salt in macula densa --> signal JG cell to release renin
ANP effect on afferent/efferent arteriole
dilate afferent, constrict efferent (increase RBF to decrease BP)
ANG 2 effect on afferent arteriole?
vasoconstrict (decrease RBF to increase BP)
how to distinguish bw PCT and DCT?
DCT: basal membrane infolding. PCT: brush border (increase SA for Na absorption + taller cells)
epithelium type of PCT/DCT?
serosa vs adventitia?
mucus secretion vs support
Ureter: describe the 1) mucosa, 2) submucosa, 3) muscularis externa, 4) adventitia/serosa?
1) trasitional epithelia + lamina propria
3)inner oblique, middle circular, outer longitudinal smooth muscle
4) adventitia w/ some serosa
Bladder: describe the 1) mucosa, 2) submucosa, 3) muscularis externa, 4) adventitia/serosa?
1)trasitional epith + lamina propria
3) thick smooth muscle layer with no distinct orientation of muscle fibres until neck of bladder (becomes circular at internal urinary sphincter)
4) adventitia, some serosa