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Flashcards in Kidney Deck (106):
1

excretory

kidney waste
blood waste

2

function of kidney

filter blood of waste, water
filter glucose, regular blood pressure

3

micturition

proper name for urination

4

microscopic components

adrenal gland
cortex
medulla
calyx/calycies
pelvis
ureter

5

adrenal gland

sits on top of kidney

6

right side is

lower then left bc liver

7

cortex

outside kindey

8

medulla

pyramids that make up medulla layer

9

calyx/calycies

leads to pelvis

10

pelvis

leads to ureter

11

ureter leads to

bladde

12

pyramids

cluster of nephrons that are forming urine and collecting things not balanced in body

13

medulla leads to

calyx

14

calyx leads to

pelvis

15

pelvis leads to

ureter

16

bladder

fundus, body urethra

17

parts of bladder

internal
external
urethra

18

internal bladder

urethrial sphincter: smooth

19

external urethral sphincter

skeltal muscle

20

nephron

working unit of kidney

21

what are the parts of nephron

bowmen's capsule and lenal tubule

22

juxtamedullary

near medullar layer
nephron

23

cortico

in cortex
nephron

24

bowmen's capsule is also called

penal corpuscle
glomerular capsule

25

function of bowmen's capsule

one arteriole from renal artery goes into capsule

for filtration

26

afferent anteriole

arteriole that goes INTO bowmen's caps

27

glomerulus

what an arteriole is called when it is in bowmen's capsule

28

efferent arteriole

what it's called when it leaves bowmen's capsule

29

fenestrated

"there's gaps"

glomerulus

30

filtration

happens in bowmne's capsule because of fenestrae in arteriole called glomerulus

31

renal tubule

reabsorption and secretion

32

parts of renal tubule

proximal convoluted tubule
loop of henle
distal convoluted tubule

33

proximal convoluted tube

65% of the filtrate is reabsorbed

34

loop of henle

85% of filtrate has been absorbed
reabsorbs water

35

distal convoluted tube

secretion of amonia

(if diabetic, glucose)

36

peritubular capillaries

reabsorption everything

37

where are the peritubular capillaries

around renal tubule

38

vasa recta

peritubular capillary around loop of henle

39

collecting ducts

a window

if outside of window, it becomes toxic and secreted

40

every nephron leads to

collecting ducts

41

collecting ducts leads to

calyx

42

parts of calyx

major
minor

43

calyx major

forms pelvis

44

calyx minor

goes into major calyx

45

-uria

urinary system

46

ureter

leads out of kindey

47

what does filtration

bowmen's capsule

48

reabsorption happens where

in renal tubule (loop of henle and proximal convoluted tubule)

49

reabsorption means

from renal tubule to the blood

50

secretion

from blood to renal tubule

51

juxtaglomerulus apparatus

big role in blood pressure
monitoring blood coming in and out and how much water in renal tubule

52

renin

when too much water in blood, enzyme (renin) is released by cells of distal convoluted tubule

53

what are the cells of the distal convoluted tubules

maculla densa

54

angiotensinogen is where

in blood

55

angiotensin 2 is

in the lungs

56

what is leaving the lungs

active form of angotensin 2

57

where does angiotensin 2 go to?

adrenal cortex

58

from the adrenal cortex, then what

it releases a hormone called aldosterone

59

ACE

enzyme that converst angiotenson 1 to 2 when blood goes to lungs

60

maculla

distal convoluted tubule

61

adosterone

hormone released by adrenal cortex that causes gates to be inserted in distal and collecting ducts to let out water. water then goes into renal tubule

62

what is the kindey associated with

urinary/excretory

63

aqua porins

gates inserted in capillaries

64

anuria

not making urine

65

polyuria

keep making uria

66

oligouria

small portion of uria

67

incontinence

you can't hold it

68

suppresion

don't make urine
something wrong with nephron

69

detruse muscles

muscle that lines bladder between outside and ruggae

70

what makes up urine

minerals
urea
creatine
uric acid
urobilinogen

71

urea

NH3 + CO2

72

creatine

compound molecule that can store phosphate

73

uric acid

NA

breakdown of nucleic acid

74

urobilinogen

breakdown of RBC

75

kidneystones

crystalize

76

diurisis

peeing

77

dysuira

pain when you urinate

78

enurisis

peeing when you sleep

79

hematuria

blood in urine

80

characteristics of countercurrent mulitpolar system

descending lib on loop of henle: secrets water

ascending limb of loop of henle: secrets NA+Cl-, K+

vesa recta absorbs water and na+, cl-, k+

81

what is secreted by maculla densa cells

renin

82

angiotensinogen 2 is trying to what

bring up pressure

83

maculla densa

cells of distal convoluted tuble that secretes reninn

84

ascending loop of henle

pump out sodium

85

descnding loop of henle

permeable to water

86

in the collecting ducts, what do we have

reabsorption of sodium, secretion of sodium, reabsoprtion, and secretion of water (blood pressure)

87

in posterior pituitary, it secretes two hormones

oxytosin
ADH

88

oxytosin

milk let down

89

ADH

antidiretic hormone (vasopresin)

opens up gates in collecting ducts and distal convoluted tuvule which lets out water

90

folds are called

ruggae

91

where does most reabsorption occur

proximal tubule

92

what is the story of kidney

filtration, reabsorption, secretion

93

renin + angiotensinogen =

angiotension 1

94

what is the purpose of angiotensin 2 and all of this

purpose to increase mean arteriole pressure

happens when you have low blood pressure and want to increase blood volume

95

what are the two ways to regulate blood pressure

aldosterone

ADH

96

where is aldosterone produced from

renin
angiotensiogen
angiotensin 1
angiotensin 2
angiotensin converting enzyme
the lungs

97

what is the end results of the ACE domino effect

the release of aldasterone out of the adrenal cortex

one of the chortico steroids

98

what does aldosterone do

pumps out sodium out of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts, chloride follow its it, water comes out, and capillaries pick up the water: you increase blood pressure

99

ADH is released from where

posterior pituitary

100

what are the target cells fro ADH

distal convoluted tubule and the collecting ducts

101

what does ADH do

inserts aquaporins

102

when aquaporins are inserted,

water pours out and capillaries pick it up and result in volume therefor increase in blood pressure

103

generally, what does ADH do?

opens up flood gates

104

generally, what does aldasterone do?

opens up the gates and pumps out sodium

105

atrial atrie diuretic hormone is released from where

the atria of the heart

106

what does atrial atrieduretic hormone causes

water to come out of the blood and decreases blood pressure