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Flashcards in Kidney & Urinary Tract Deck (30):

What muscle(s) do the kidneys lie against?

- psoas major


Which organs are the right kidney associated with?

- the liver
- the 2nd part of the duodenum
- the ascending colon
- the small intestine


Which organs are the left kidney associated with?

- the stomach
- the pancreas
- the descending colon
- the small intestine


The kidneys are retroperitoneal. What does this mean?

- it means they are covered in front by peritoneum over most of their anterior surface, but not all of it


Put the following in order starting from the kidney and heading outwards: pararenal fat, perinephric fat, renal capsule, renal fascia (Gerota's Fascia)

- kidney --> renal capsule --> perinephric fat --> renal fasica (Gerota's Fascia) --> pararenal fat (--> peritoneum)


What contains the renal pelvis?

- the renal sinus


How does a collecting tubule emerge into its minor calyx?

- via its papilla


Projections of the cortex between the renal pyramids are known as:

- renal columns


The striated-looking parts of the cortex immediately adjacent to each pyramid are known as:

- medullary rays


Does the right renal artery pass in front of or behind the IVC?

- it passes behind the IVC
- (in most cases, veins are in front of arteries)


Which renal artery is longer?

- the right renal artery is longer


Does the left renal vein pass in front of or behind the aorta?

- it passes in front
- (in most cases, veins are in front of arteries)


Which two large tributaries drain into the left renal vein?

- the left suprarenal and left gonadal veins
- (on the right side, these veins drain directly into the IVC)


Renal Pedicle

- a region/collection made up of the ureter and the renal vein and artery (and part of the renal pelvis)


The right ureter passes behind the _________; the left ureter passes behind the _________.

- right passes behind the 2nd part of the duodenum
- left passes behind the sigmoid colon


What does each ureter almost constantly cross very close to?

- the bifurication of the common iliac artery into the internal and external iliac arteries


In males, where does the ureter pass in relation to the ductus deferens and seminal vesicle?

- ureters pass below the ductus deferens and above the seminal vesicle


T or F: the bladder is retroperitoneal.

- false!
- the bladder is actually extraperitoneal, meaning it lies in front of the peritoneum in the retropubic space


What space does the bladder lie in?

- the retropubic space


The ovoid enlargement of the _________ is known as the __________; it contains the ________.

- the ovoid enlargement of the urethral crest (in males) is the colliculus
- contains the prostatic utricle


What is found on each side of the prostatic utricle?

- an ejaculatory duct


The vesical arteries supply what organ?

- the bladder
- ("vesical" refers to the bladder)


What is the projecting ridge along the posterior wall of the prostatic urethra called?

- urethral crest


What is the groove found on each side of the urethral crest known as? What does each contain?

- the prostatic sinus
- each contains several prostatic ducts


Name the parts of the male urethra from beginning to end.

- prostatic urethra --> membranous urethra --> bulbar urethra --> spongy/penile urethra --> urethral opening


Which part of the male urethra is the least distensible?

- the membranous urethra


Where is the external urethral orifice in the female?

- in the vestibule of the vagina


Which kidney is normally lower than the other?

- the right (probably being slightly displaced by the liver)


What is the term used for an abnormally low kidney?

- ptosed kidney


What develops into the kidney during embryogenesis? What are its two major parts?

- the metanephros becomes the kidney
- it is made up of the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesoderm/blastema