Kidney: Anatomy/ Congenital Disorders/ Acquired Cystic Disease Flashcards Preview

Pathology Unit 5 > Kidney: Anatomy/ Congenital Disorders/ Acquired Cystic Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidney: Anatomy/ Congenital Disorders/ Acquired Cystic Disease Deck (33):
1

"fenestrated epithelial cells"

podocytes

2

"modified smooth muscle cells"

mesangial cells

3

What molecules make up the GBM?

Type IV collagen and GAGs

4

What cells are important in glomerular inflammation and thrombosis?

Glomerular epithelial cells

5

Where are podocytes located?

rest on the outer aspect of the GMB

6

What are foot processes?

cytoplasmic projections from podocytes onto the lamina rara externa of the GMB

7

What are the functions of the mesangium?

5 functions

1- mechanical support

2- endocytosis and processing of plasma protein

3- maintenance of GMB and matrix

4- modulation of glomerular filtration

5- generation of molecular mediators

8

What comprises the JG apparatus?

Macula densa, mesangial cells, terminal afferent and proximal efferent arterioles

9

What do cortical interstitial cells secrete?

EPO

10

"insufficient amniotic fluid, compressed fetus, low ears, small chin, beak node, pilmonary hypoplasia"

Potter sequence

11

"complete absence of renal tissue"

renal agenesis

12

Difference between unilateral and bilateral renal agenesis?

unilateral--> asymptomatic and existing kidney undergoes hypertrophy

bilateral--> still born, link with potter sequence

13

Unilateral renal agenesis is at increased risk for....

Progressive glomerular sclerosis

14

"few than 6 renal lobes"

Renal hypoplasia

15

"enlargement of renal lobules when there are too few lobules"

Oligomeganephronia

16

Most common location of an ectopic kidney?

pelvis

17

"conjoined kidneys usually in the lower abdomen"

Horseshoe kidney

18

Most common renal congenital anomaly?

Horseshoe kidney

19

"undifferentiated tubules and primitive mesenchyme, cysts may be present"

renal dysplasia

20

What is the most common abd mass in newborns?

Multicystic renal dysplasia

21

"inherited defect leading to bilateral enlarged kidneys with cysts in the renal cortex and medulla"

PKD

22

Who gets the AR form of PKD?

infants

23

How does AR PKD present?

worsening renal failure ad HTN, potter sequence possible

Hepatic cysts/ fibrosis are also possible

24

Who gets the AD form of PKD?

Adults

25

How does AD PKD present?

Young adults with HTN, hematuria, worsening renal failure

Berry aneurysms, hepatic cysts, mitral valve prolapse

26

PKD1/2 gene is involved in...

primary cilia or tubular epithela cell cell adhesion complexes

so without tubules are abnormal and undifferentiated

27

Arrangement of cysts in AR PKD?

Radial arrangement

28

"AD inherited defect leading to cysts in the medullary Collecting Ducts"

medullary cystic kidney diseases

29

Gene in medullary cystic kidney diseases?

MCKD 1/2 mutation

30

Symptoms of nephrothisis and medullary cystic disease?

polyuria, polydipsia, enuresis, azotemia, renal failure/ ESRD, atrophic tubules thickened and laminated BM, sclerosis fibrosis, and inflammation

31

"multiple small cysts in the papillae that arise from CDs

medullary sponge disease

32

How does a person get acquired cystic disease?

long term dialysis

33

Acquired cystic disease leads to an increased risk of...

Renal cell carcinoma