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Flashcards in kidney-urinary tract infection Deck (19)
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1

what are 3 risk factors for urinary tract infection?

sexual intercourse
urinary stasis
catheters

2

what is cystitis?

infection of the bladder

3

how does cystitis present? systemic symptoms?

dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency and suprapubic pain
systemic signs (like fever) are usually ABSENT

4

what will be seen in the urinanalysis in cystitis?

coudy urine with >10 WBC WBCs/hpf

5

what will be seen in a dipstick with cystitis?

positive leukocyte esterase (due to pyuria) and nitrites (bacteria convert nitrates to nitrites)

6

will the culture be positive or negative in cystitis? (usually)

positive

7

what is the most likely causative agent in cystitis?

e coli

8

what agent is seen in cystitis in young sexually active women (besides e coli)

staph saprophyticus

9

what agent causes cystitis with..
" alkaline urine with ammonia scent"

proteus mirabilis

10

what are you thinking if you have sterile pyruia (>10 WBCs and leukocyte esterase but negative urine culture)

suggets urethritis due to chlamydia or neisseria gonorrhoeae

11

what is pyelonephritis

infection of kidney

12

what condition increases the risk for pyelonephritis?

vesicoureteral reflux

13

how does pyelonephritis present?

fever, flank pain, WBC casts, leukocytosis and all the symptoms seen in cystitis

14

what are the top 3 causative agents of pyelonephritis?

1. e coli (90%)
2. enterococcus faecalis
3. klebsiella

15

what disease:
" interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of tubules due to multiple bouts of acute pyelonephritis"

chronic pyelonephritis

16

what is the usual underlying cause of chronic pyelonephritis in children? in adults?

children- vesicoureteral reflux
adults- obstruction (BPH or cervical carcinoma)

17

what are you thinking if you have scarring at upper and lower poles of the cortex?

vesicoureteral reflux

18

what can be seen in the urine of chronic pyelonephritis?

waxy casts

19

what disease do you see "thyroidization" of the kidney? what the F does that mean?

chronic pyelonephritis

atrophic tubules containing eosinophilic proteinaceous material resembling thyroid follicles