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Anatomy & Physiology > Kidneys & body Fluid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidneys & body Fluid Deck (34):
0

Define what water is & what does it do?

Universal solvent
Gives volume & turgor (pressure) to cells (intracellular fluid)
Vital component of blood & the fluid between cells (interstitial fluid)
Maintains whole body regulation

1

What is the body water % of male, female & neonate?

Adult male 60%
Adult female 50%
Neonate 75%

2

What body compartment holds the most fluid?

Intracellular fluid (28 ltrs)

3

What body compartment holds the least fluid?

Transcellular fluid (0.8ltrs)

4

What are the 4 types of fluid compartments?

Intracellular, transcellular, Interstial, blood plasma

5

What compartment holds more fluid? Interstitial/ blood plasma

Interstial (10.4 ltrs)

Blood plasma ( 2.8 ltrs)

6

How does water move between fluid compartments?

Osmosis

7

What is the rule to maintain fluid balance?

To maintain fluid balance, fluids in must be equal to fluids out.

8

Cellular metabolism makes some of the bodies water. How?

O2 + glucose = energy + CO2 + H2O

9

How is fluid balance achieved?

Balance between fluid intake (thirst) and urine output.

10

What triggers thirst?

Body fluids become too concentrated.

11

What receptors measure fluid levels?

Osmoreceptors

12

Where are osmoreceptors located?

Hypothalmus

13

Where is the integrator for fluid balance located?

Hypothalmus

14

What does the hypothalamic integrator regulate?

Water intake via thirst mechanism.

15

What regulates water loss via urine?

Kidneys

16

What are the kidneys responsible for?

Elimination of water- soluble waste materials
Fluid volume regulation
Electrolyte balance
Plasma pH regulation

17

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

Nephron

18

How many nephrons does each kidney contain?

Around 1 million (tiny tubular structures)

19

What is the job of the nephron?

Form urine of the appropriate volume & composition.
To ensure fluid balance.
To maintain plasma electrolyte & pH levels within normal range.

20

What are the 3 processes involved in urine formation?

Glomerular filtration
Selective reabsorption
Tubular secretion

21

What is glomerular filtration?

Forms a filtrate of plasma.

22

What is selective reabsorption?

Process by which substances may be absorbed from the filtrate back into the peritubular blood.

23

What is tubular secretion?

Process by which substances may be added to the filtrate from the peritubular blood.

24

Where does glomerular filtration take place?

Bowman's capsule

25

When does filtration take place within bowman's capsule?

As blood flows through the glomerular tuft.

26

What part of bowman's capsule has tiny gaps between the cell making them leaky?

Capillary membrane & membrane lining

27

What is the function of the capillary membrane & membrane lining (double sac)?

Allows solutes and water to pass through but restraining larger substances.

28

What substances are filtered & enter bowman's space?

Water
Electrolytes
Glucose
Amino acids
Urea
Small metabolic waste molecules

29

What substances are too big to be filtered by bowman's capsule?

Blood cells
Plasma proteins
Large metabolic waste molecules

30

What is the name of the fluid that enters bowman's capsule as a result of filtration?

Glomerular filtrate

31

Glomerular filtrate is formed at what rate?

Around 120 mls/min (glomerular filtration rate)

32

What % of blood passes through the glomerular capillaries & undergoes filtration?

20%

33

What is the filtration fraction?

% of blood that passes through the glomerular capillaries & undergoes filtration. (20%)